Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-Drug Resistant and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from Shellfish in Iko Creek, Nigeria

Udoekong, Nsikan S., Akan, Otobong D., James, Iniobong I., Agbo, Bassey E., Umoh, Anthony

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v14i430068

Aim: This study investigated the occurrence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistant (PMQR) genes in Salmonella enterica isolated from shellfish in Iko Creek, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is an experimental research that studied Salmonella enterica isolated from shellfish to determine its association with MDR and PMQR using standard microbiological and molecular methods.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried within Iko Creek, South-South Nigeria for a period of one year (March-July and August to February 2017).

Methodology: A total of 160 shellfish samples (80 clams and 80 oysters) were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica using standard bacteriological methods. In all, 22(52.4%) were positive for clams while 20(47.6%) for oysters. The bacterium was identified using phenotypic methods. The antibiotics used for the antibiotic susceptibility profiles were amoxicillin, quinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolide and sulfonamide. Confirmation of the isolates was done by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene; results obtained were then compared with that in the gene bank. The isolate was identified as Salmonella enterica.

Results: The mean heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC) in clams ranged from 5.25 x 106 to 3.71 x 107 (Cfu/g) in the dry season and 3.05 x 106 to 2.33 x106 (Cfu/g) in the rainy season. The mean THB counts in oyster was 3.27 x 108 to 1.59 x 108(Cfu/g) in the dry season and 2.54 x 107 to 4.39 x 106 (Cfu/g) in the rainy season. Salmonella enterica showed resistance to all the antibiotics tested except gentamicin. Seventy-one (71) percent of the isolates in this study expressed the qnrB genes.

Conclusion: The presence of qnr B genes and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the isolate’s gene according to this study is an indicator of treatment failure with antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Evaluation of Bacteria Exhibiting Multiple Plant Growth Traits in the Rhizosphere of Yellow Bell Pepper (Capsicum chinense)

E. C. Chinakwe, N. U. Nwogwugwu, V. I. Ibekwe, P. O. Chinakwe, E. O. Egbadon, S. A. Adeleye

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v14i430070

Aim: The study identified and evaluated bacteria exhibiting multiple plant growth traits in the Rhizosphere of Yellow Bell Pepper (Capsicum chinense).                                                             

Study Design: Seeds of Capsicum chinense were planted in a soil and allowed to grow. After five eeks of planting, soil samples from the rhizosphere were collected and the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere soil of Capsicum chinense was studied. The isolated organisms were assessed for their ability to produce plant growth promoting traits.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at an agricultural research farmland in the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Methodology: Seeds of Capiscum chinense were planted in the soil samples in a greenhouse. Rhizosphere soil was collected for analysis to identify the bacterial composition of the rhizosphere soil.                                                                                                                                              

Results: In this study the presence of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium sp, Enterococcus feacalis and Bacillus polymyxa were evident in the rhizosphere samples collected. All isolates showed multiple plant growth promoting traits except Staphylococcus aureushich was positive for hydrogen cyanide production only.

Conclusion: The results from this study showed that the bacterial community present in the soil can be used to effect significant vegetative crop yield and agricultural production. The isolated rhizobacteria can be formulated as bio-fertilizers or bioinnoculants, etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

B. E. Agbo, A. V. Ogar, U. L. Akpan, C. I. Mboto

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v14i430071

This study evaluated the physico-chemical and the bacteriological quality of five different sources of drinking water in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria, to give a fair geographical representative of the town and to contribute to our understanding of the quality of drinking water in the metropolis. The physico-chemical characteristics such as pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, colour, Iron, dissolved oxygen, Calcium, Magnesium, alkalinity, total hardness, Manganese, Sulphate, Chloride, Phosphate, Sodium, Zinc, Copper, total dissolved solid, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia, Ammonium and Potassium were determined following the procedures prescribed by American Public Health Association Standard Method. The bacteriological analysis was carried out using the standard microbiological standard for analysis of water for total and faecal coliform count. The mean temperature of the evaluated waters ranged from 23.03°C-29.3°C, mean pH ranged from 4.37-6.76, while turbidity had a mean range of 0.16 NTU-4.13 NTU. Conductivity ranged between 39.29 µs/cm - 120.7 µs/cm, dissolved oxygen with 13.30 mg/L - 4.19 mg/L, total dissolved solids ranged from 72.4 mg/L -23.5 mg/L, while the mean for iron concentration ranged from 0.12 mg/L - 0.99 mg/L. Similarly, the mean for total hardness was 34.2 mg/L - 17.1 mg/L and 7.93 mg/L - 6.71 mg/L for total alkalinity. Others includes Manganese (0.88 mg/L - 0.02 mg/L), Magnesium (16.5 mg/L - 9.9 mg/L), Calcium (9.77 mg/L - 7.20 mg/L, Nitrate (14.6 mg/L - 3.66 mg/L), Nitrite (0.076 mg/L -0.009 mg/L), Ammonia (0.89 mg/L - 0.25 mg/L), Ammonium (0.52 mg/L - 0.013 mg/L), Zinc (1.01 mg/L - 0.34 mg/L), Chloride (5.73 mg/L - 0.364 mg/L), Fluoride (0.76 mg/L - 0.277 mg/L), Copper (0.61 mg/L - 0.18 mg/L), Sodium (2.73 mg/L - 0.180 mg/L), potassium (5.73 mg/L - 2.0 mg/L), Sulphate (14.8 mg/L - 3.69 mg/L and Phosphate with 4.8 mg/L - 3.69 mg/L. The total coliform count for bottled water ranged between 2.00 cfu/100 mL – 19.00 cfu/100 mL, the total coliform range for sachet water were 6.00 cfu/100 mL and 15.00 cfu/100 mL and no faecal coliform was detected. Public water had no growth at all, the stream and borehole bacteriological analysis ranged from 27x101 cfu/ mL - 55x101 cfu/mL and 12 cfu/100 mL - 33 cfu/100 mL for total coliform respectively. Faecal coliform ranged from 15x101 cfu/ mL - 52x101 cfu/ mL for stream and 9.00 cfu100/ mL16.00 cfu/100 mL for borehole. A total of seven (7) different bacteria species were isolated from the sampled drinking water sources. These included Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., E.coli, Chromobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. This study reveals a high level of poor quality sources of water in the metropolis and makes need for urgent health intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fresh Garlic Extract has a Synergistic Effect with Antibiotics on ESBLs Producing E. coli Urinary Isolates

Wedad M. Abdelraheem

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v14i430072

Aim: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing bacteria often exhibit a multidrug- resistant phenotype limiting the therapeutic options available to the clinician. This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial susceptibility pattern of ESBL producing E. coli isolates and evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Garlic extract against it.

Study Design: The study was carried out using antibiotics powder and Garlic extract.

Place and Duration of Study: At the microbiology lab, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University between January 2017 to August 2018. 

Methods: The study was carried on 55 ESBL producing E. coli isolates isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI). Screening and confirmation for ESBL was done according to clinical and laboratory standard institute guidelines (CLSI) guidelines. The antibacterial sensitivity to a panel of antibiotics and Garlic was performed by tube dilution method.

Results: The results of antibacterial susceptibility testing of ESBLs-producing E. coli isolates in our study showed a higher degree of resistance to the tested antibiotics. In the present study, Garlic showed an inhibitory effect on ESBLs- producing E. coli with concentrations ranging from 10-50 mg/ml and a mean of 30 mg/ml. Garlic extract produce a synergistic effect with all tested antibiotics against all tested ESBL producing E. coli isolates. A Significant decrease in ESBLs genes expression (SHV, TEM and CTX-m) was reported after treatment with Garlic extract (P value: ˂0.001).

Conclusion: The combinations of antibiotics and Garlic may be more useful than individual agents, so we recommended that further researches should be undertaken to evaluate the combination of Garlic with antibiotics towards ESBL producing E. coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli Patients under Five Years Attending Selected Hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria

R. O. Chioma, I. Mzungu, J. B. Orpin

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v14i430073

Escherichia coli infections and poor nutritional status have implications on the growth and development of children under five years, physically, mentally and health wise with consequences such as diarrhoea, stunting, wasting, underweight and often times leading to death, depending on their severity. This study evaluated the antibiogram of Escherichia coli O157 and Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)and the nutritional status of diarrhoeic children under five years in Kaduna State, Nigeria, using Conventional isolation methods, latex agglutination tests, VTEC-ELISA tests, Chi-square (SPSS Version 19) and WHO Antro (Version 3.2.2). Purposive sampling was used to select 350 children presenting with diarrhoea in six government hospitals within the three senatorial zones of Kaduna State. The results obtained revealed that 76(21.7%) of the 350 stool samples were positive for E. coli and 28(36.8%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7serotype and 1(1.3%) verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) serotype. High susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and high resistance to sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, gentamicin and tetracycline by the isolates were observed. The study concluded that antibiotics have not been very effective in the treatment of E. coli-related diarrhoea, with VTEC now emerging in this part of the world, making it a serious public health issue. The study therefore recommends the implementation of programmes geared towards good hygiene, good nutrition and good health.