Open Access Short Research Article

Identification of Hemin-binding Protein of Oral Streptococci via Electrophoresis in SDS Polyacrylamide Gel

Eun Jeong Kim, Si Young Lee

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i130079

Background and Objectives: It has been reported that hemin binding proteins are involved in the mechanism of obtaining iron in some bacteria. Oral streptococci in the dental plaque are assumed to acquire iron through hemin or hemin compounds. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of a protein (hemin binding protein) involved in the hemin binding mechanism of oral streptococci.

Methodology: In this study, we investigated the presence of proteins involved in hemin binding of oral streptococci through sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis using hemin-agarose beads.

Results: As a result of SDS-PAGE analysis, similar or different sizes of hemin binding protein bands were observed depending on the strains belonging to streptococci. The molecular weight of hemin binding protein in Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus oralis were approximately 95 kDa, 43 kDa, 43 kDa, 39 kDa, and 39 kDa, respectively.

Conclusion: In this study, the presence of hemin binding protein in streptococci was confirmed and the proteins involved in hemin binding in different species of oral streptococci may be different.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature Changes on the Bacterial and Fungal Succession Patterns during Composting of Some Organic Wastes in Greenhouse

E.C. Chinakwe, V.I. Ibekwe, M.C. Ofoh, N.U. Nwogwugwu, S.A. Adeleye, P.O. Chinakwe, I.N. Nwachukwu, C.E. Ihejirika

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i130075

Aim: Organic wastes were composted and the effect of temperature changes on the bacterial and fungal succession patterns studied.

Study Design: The wastes which included cow dung (CD), pig waste (PW), poultry litter (PL) and source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and their combinations: PL+MSW, PW+MSW and CD+MSW were allowed to decompose for 70 days in a greenhouse.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out between September 2017 and January 2018, in the greenhouse of the Agricultural Research Farm of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Methodology: The wastes were allowed to decompose for 70 days in a greenhouse using the modified windrow method of composting. Standard microbiological methods were used to monitor temperature changes in compost piles as well as changes in bacterial and fungal populations.

Results: Results revealed that changes in temperature affected microbial composition in the compost piles. The highest temperature recorded was 60oC for cow dung (CD) compost pile while at maturity the temperature in all the compost piles ranged between 27°C to 30°C. Different bacterial and fungal populations were isolated during the thermophilic and mesophilc phases of composting. Bacteria isolates included species of Staphylococcus, Proteus, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. Others included Enterobacter, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Micrococcus spp. Fungal species isolated included Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Mucor and Fusarium.

Conclusion: The presence of some plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria at the end of composting qualifies organic waste composts as effective nutrient sources for crop production and can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Tap Surfaces in Nigeria Campus

T. S. Aderanti, D. J. Arotupin, A. T. Adeyemo, T. V. Adegoke

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i130076

Resistance of microorganisms to available antimicrobial agents have resulted in pernicious effect to human health over the last decades. The increase in antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms particularly in tap surfaces is a major concern to the society. This research focused on the investigation of antimicrobial resistance pattern of pathogenic organisms (bacteria and fungi) isolated from various tap surfaces in the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA) Obakere campus, in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were obtained from different locations (laboratories, hostels and toilets) in FUTA. The samples were analyzed microbiologically on selective, differential and general purpose media. The isolated organisms were identified by the routine microbiological methods. Among the pathogenic microorganisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Acinectobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporium. The percentage distribution varies with P. aeruginosa (26.09%) having the highest percentage and Klebsiella sp. (4.45%) recorded at the lowest percentage of occurrence. All fungi isolated have simillar percentage distribution. The isolates displayed various levels of resistance to piperacillin (100%), ampicillin (66.67%). ceftazidime (66.67%), tetracycline (83.33%), cefepime (66.67%) and chloramphenicol (66.67%). The resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate by E. coli and C. freundii isolated from taps surfaces were 60% and 50%, respectively. K. pneumoniae from tap water surface has 100% resistance to cefepime. The high resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents indicated a great threat to people living within FUTA community that constantly obtaining water from these taps surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodeterioration of Classroom Wall Surfaces in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

B. C. Anele, P. O. Okerentugba, H. O. Stanley, C. J. Ugboma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i130080

Aim: This study investigated the biodeterioration of classroom wall surfaces in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Study Design: Scrapings from selected classroom wall surfaces were analyzed for their microbiological and physicochemical parameters. Isolated bacteria were screened for their antibiotics susceptibility.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the University of Port Harcourt between March - June 2018.

Methods: The population of culturable bacterial and fungal biodeteriogens was determined by plating. Physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method.

Results: The total culturable heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 6.48 to 8.23 log CFU/g while the total fungal counts ranged from 5.00 to 7.28 log CFU/g. The bacterial isolates identified by biochemical characterization and their frequency of occurrence are Micrococcus spp. (7.3%), Citrobacter spp. (3.2%), Bacillus spp. (39.1%), Serratia spp. (3.2%), Corynebacterium spp. (10.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), Proteus spp. (9.2%) and Shigella spp (7.0%). The fungal isolates and their frequency of occurrence are Aspergillus flavus (39.1%), Penicillium spp. (20.1%), Microsporium canis (14.3%), Coccidioides spp. (10.9%), Aspergillus fumigates (3.2%) and Tricophyton spp (3.2%). All antibiotics used showed activity against all bacterial isolates except Proteus spp. From the results of the physicochemical parameters, pH values ranged from 6.15 to 9.01, nitrate ranged from 5.30 to 14.83 mg/kg, phosphate ranged 2.19 to 5.94 mg/kg, sulphate ranged from 12.97 to 19.07 mg/kg and Total Organic Carbon ranged from 74.89 to 119.43 mg/kg.

Conclusions: This study has shown the potential public health risk associated with classroom building deterioration owing to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, measures towards prevention and mitigation of classroom building biodeterioration should be in place.

Open Access Review Article

Normal and Pathological Vaginal Microflora in the Bitch-A Review

Anton Antonov

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i130074

The vagina is not only a place for the development of various microorganisms, but also serves as a border before reaching the uterus of all mammals. Determining the qualitative and quantitative specifics of vaginal bacterial flora is of great importance for a better understanding of genital pathology mechanism, clinical diagnosis, management and antibiotic treatment of reproductive diseases in the bitch.