Open Access Original Research Article

Recovery Incidence and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Some Enteric Bacteria from Well Waters in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

Olayinka O. Elutade, Olamide F. Olutunde, Omowumi T. Akinola, Olayinka O. Oluranti

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i230083

The recovery incidence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species in water from 15 different wells located in Iwo, Osun state, were investigated in an effort to determine the potential health risks associated with the consumption of the water. Each well water sample was separately initially cultured in a non-selective pre-enrichment broth for 24 hours, and subsequently, subcultured on sterile Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar for Escherichia coli and Salmonella-Shigella agar for Salmonella and Shigella species, using the pour-plate technique and the microbial counts recorded. With the aid of the disc diffusion method, 0.5 McFarland of each target organism was screened on Mueller-Hinton agar for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Results showed a recovery incidence of E. coli (87%), Salmonella species (80%) and Shigella species (100%). was observed while the microbial counts for E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella species differed significantly in each of the wells sampled. Antibiotic sensitivity profile observed showed 100% isolates of E. coli and Salmonella spp were resistant to augmentin. There were also presence of multi-antibiotic resistance strains with 66.67% of the E. coli isolates resistant to the combinations of cefixime, augmentin and nitrofuration, It is suggested that simple hygienic practice, such as regular disinfection of the wells with chemicals, boiling and filtration of water before drinking would eliminate not only the prevalence of these pathogens but also the spread of both antibiotic and multi-antibiotic resistance traits in the consumed water, hence making it safe for the health of the humans in the study population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Food Safety Implications of Multi Antibiotic Resistant Fermented-Food-Condiment-Environment-Adapted Bacteria

Adenike A. O. Ogunshe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i230084

Problem of Research: Food safety implications of fermented-condiment-adapted bacterial strains, regarding their intrinsic, acquired and transferable antibiotic resistance potentials are yet to be reportedly fully ascertained.

Aim: To determine food safety implications of culturalable fermented-condiment-adapted bacterial strains.

Methodology: Using the Kirby-Bauer agar disc-diffusion method, phenotypic multi-antibiotic-drug-in-discs resistance (MADIDR) profiles of 138 fermented-condiment-borne (Gram-positive = 71; Gram-negative = 67) bacterial strains from iru, ogiri and okpehe were evaluated by in-discs antibiotics, which are commonly administered in human and animal prophylaxis and therapy.

Results: None of the fermented-condiment-adapted bacterial strains was totally susceptible to the test in-discs antibiotics; just five (3.62%: n = 0.7%: Gram-positive: n = 2.9% Gram-negative) strains were mono-resistant, while six (4.37%) were totally or pandrug-resistant (PDR). Of the remaining 92.03% fermented-condiment-adapted-bacterial strains, 6.57% exhibited co-antibiotic drug resistance (CDR); 43.8% (Gram-positive = 17.52%; Gram-negative = 26.28%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR); and 41.55% (Gram-positive = 25.55%: Gram-negative = 16.0%) displayed extensive-drug resistance (XDR). A total of 43.48% Gram-positive and 36.96% Gram-negative bacterial strains were multi-resistant to between four and eight of the test in-discs antibiotics. Overall, augmentin (95.8%), cloxacillin (94.4%) cotrimoxazole (71.8%) and erythromycin (71.8%) were the most-resisted in-discs antibiotics by the condiment-adapted Gram-positive bacteria, while cloxacillin (93.8%), ciprofloxacin (80.0%) and augmentin (76.9%) were the most-resisted in-discs antibiotics by Gram-negative bacteria.

Conclusion: Tremendous multi and extensive resistance to in-discs antibiotics were recorded among fermented-food-condiment-environment-adapted bacteria, indicating a serious food safety challenge in the ethnic cottage-food industries, food chain, and the community. Thus, preliminary screening for antibiotic resistance in food-condiment-borne bacteria, using in-discs antibiotics is strongly suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Load in Traditional Food Packaging Paper

Md. Sohel Rana, Shohel Mahmud, Md. Arif Hossain, Masud Rana, Enamul Kabir, Ashish Kumar Das, Rajib Kanti Roy

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i230085

Aims: To determine bacteriological load of rejected papers used as food packaging materials and assess their prevalence of use by food vendors.

Methods and Results: Food vendors (n=116) were selected purposively from various street food, fast food, small and large dining stalls or hotels located at Jashore, Bangladesh. Paper samples randomly collected from these vendors were later categorized into 5 different types as food wrapping, plate covering, tray spreading paper and hand cleaning. Then, 7 paper samples from these each 5 types were randomly sampled for microbial analysis. Swabbing and defibering methods for bacterial analysis and SPSS for statistical analysis were employed. The number of bacteria by the defibering method was in the range of (1.9×108-7.5×108) Cfu/g. Sample papers tested by swabbing method contained between minimum 1.2×108 and maximum 9.2×108Cfu/cm2. Under swabbing method, the minimum average bacterial count was 2.8×108 Cfu/cm2 in food serving paper samples and maximum 4.7×108 Cfu/cm2 in wrapping paper samples. By defibering method, maximum average of bacterial load was found in tray spreading paper samples as 5.3×108Cfu/g and minimum average was in plate covering paper as 4.4x108Cfu/g. Types of paper samples were not significantly different when compared with each other against their mean bacterial concentration found by swabbing method (F=0.961, p=0.443) as well as defibering method (F=2.227, p=0.09).The mean quantity of paper use per vendor surveyed was as much as 1.26 kg a day. Anticipatedly, quantity extent of paper use (kg/day) based on the types of food shops showed a significant difference (F=3.9, p=0.01), as understandably, paper use among different shops was apparently highly variable.

Conclusions: The paper samples used for food wrapping and packaging showed high bacterial contamination more than standard acceptance level. There is an urgent need to discourage the use of these papers as food packaging material by creating awareness among food vendors and consumers regarding its harmful effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Strain, pH and Ethanol Concentration on Ethanol Activation Method of Bacillus Spores Using a Single Spore Approach

A. Nkoue Tong, S. L. Sado Kamdem, F. X. Etoa

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i230086

Aims: This work aims to determine the ideal conditions for ethanol activation of spores during their enumeration and compare to thermal activation which is the reference method.

Place and duration: Department of Microbiology of the University of Yaoundé I between
May2016 and June 2018.

Methodology: Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis spores were activated according to an experimental central composite design with three-factor. The factors considered were exposure time, ethanol concentration, pH and activation temperature according to the types of activation. Germination yield was carried out by individually monitoring each spore of a population on solid medium in order to determine the population germination kinetic parameters (time and rate of colony appearance within a population during germination) and germination yields. These parameters were compared with those obtained after thermal activation known as a reference method.

Results: The factors strain and pH, significantly influenced the rate of spore germination within the population after ethanol activation. In the case of thermal activation, the specie and activation temperature were the most influential factors. The best germination yields were obtained for alcoholic activation of spores at 30% ethanol for 60min exposure at pH7, while for thermal activation the best yields varied from one strain to another depending on the activation conditions.

Conclusion: Ethanol activation can be considered as a good substitute of thermal activation during spore enumeration provided activation conditions are well controlled. This is in our opinion the first detailed study comparing ethanol activation to heat activation of Bacillus spores. It will impact future revisions of spore enumeration protocols proposed by norms that take into consideration spore activation and reduce bias in spore enumeration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation Potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 on Crude Oil Spill Polluted Marshland and Terrestrial Soil Treated with Oil Spill Dispersant

Renner Renner Nrior, Augusta Ogechi Inweregbu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v15i230087

Aim: To investigate bioremediation potentiality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 on crude oil Polluted Marshland and Terrestrial Soil treated with oil spill dispersant

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of the Study: Soil samples were collected from K-Dere, Gokana L.G.A, and were transported to the Microbiology Laboratory of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria for analyses while Oil spill dispersant (OSD/LT and OSD/Seacare) were from Barker and Hughes Nig Ltd (formally mil park Nigeria limited), all in Rivers state, Nigeria. This investigation study lasted for 28 days and sampling was done every 7day period.

Methodology: Eight experimental set up were carried out using Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 as the bio-augmenting organism in terrestrial and marshland soil contaminated with two Oil spill dispersant (OSD/LT and OSD/Seacare) separately. Controls for the two soil types were made without organism and treatment. Its bioremediation potential on the pollutants and two types of soil were monitored for 28 days. The setup was tilled twice a week to provide moisture and more oxygen for the organisms to thrive. Analysis of pH, Temperature, Moisture content, Total Hydrocarbon Content, Total Heterotrophic Bacteria, Dispersant Utilizing Bacteria was carried out at weekly intervals.

Results: The pH of both soils ranged from 5.75 to 7.37; temperature from 270C to 340C; moisture content 03 to 0.6 across the soil samples. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) showed a steady decline from day 1 – 28. The percentage (%) bioremediation rates of polluted soils were as follows: Terrestrial soil+OSD/Seacare+Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 69.4% > Terrestrial soil+OSD/LT+ Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 65.9% > Marshland soil+OSD/Seacare+ Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 52.6% > Marshland soil+OSD/Seacare+ Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 47.6%. Dispersant utilizing bacterial count in marshland and terrestrial soil ranged from 6.013 to 7.338 log10Cfu/g and 6.045 to 7.301 log10Cfu/g respectively from Day 1 to 28.

Conclusion:  From the investigation, it revealed that Oil spill dispersants are more degradable in terrestrial soil than marshland soil. OSD/Seacare is more biodegradable than OSD/LT in both terrestrial and marshland soil augmented with Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KX828570 have been found to be a potential bioremediation agent in oil spill dispersant polluted marshland and terrestrial soil.