Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Species Associated with Shopping Trolleys and Baskets from Supermarkets in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

D. C. Oluyede, F. A. Olajubu, T. O. Adejumo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v16i230117

Pathogens on public shared objects among people have generated a lot of public health concerns. People are brought together and thus facilitate transmission of pathogens either directly or indirectly within the supermarkets. This study was aimed at isolating bacteria from items carriage from supermarkets and assesses the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. A total of 253 swab samples were obtained from handles of trolleys and baskets used by customers from four major supermarkets in Akure. Each sample was immediately transferred into 5 ml of peptone water. The samples were processed using a standard microbiological method. Bacteria growths were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Susceptibility test of the isolates was done on Mueller-Hinton agar. The study shows that out of the 353 isolates identified, 37.1% were S. aureus, 49.6% were S. epidermidis, 5.7% were Klebsiella sp and 7.6% were E. coli. Results showed that Ampiclox and Cotrimoxazole (S. aureus in Trolleys), Ampiclox, Zinnacef, Amoxacillin, Ciprofloxacin and Streptomycin (S. aureus in baskets), Rocephin (S. epidermidis in trolleys) and Amoxacillin (S. epidermidis in baskets) are ineffective. Regular disinfection of items carriage and educating people to improve hand washing habits are recommended as measures to decreasing transmission of pathogens and their infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Zobo and Bay Leaf Extracts on Enteropathogenic Bacteria

S. A. Wemedo, N. P. Akani, A. D. Amadiali

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v16i230118

Aim: The antibacterial activity of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) and Zobo leaf (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts on enteropathogenic bacteria was investigated.

Study Design: The study utilized well in agar diffusion to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University and the study was carried out in August, 2018 to October, 2018.

Methodology: Faecal samples were collected from a medical laboratory and inoculated on eosin methylene blue and mannitol salt agar plates for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using standard microbiological techniques. The bacterial isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular (PCR) identification so as to ascertain the distinctiveness of the isolates. Hot water and absolute alcohol were used as the extracting solvents. Concentrations of the extracted solvents was tested against E. coli and S. aureus using the well in agar method.

Results: The result showed that both hot aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Bay leaf showed no sensitivity against the tested bacteria, whereas the extracts of hot dry aqueous and alcohol of Zobo leaf showed remarkable zones of inhibition against the tested bacteria. The zones of inhibition in the dry hot aqueous extract of zobo leaf with concentrations of 0.25 µg/mL, 0.125 µg/mL and 0.063 µg/mL were 31.3±0.1, 25.6±1.2 and 10.0±0.0, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the dry hot aqueous of zobo extract was observed at 0.063 µg/mL for E. coli, while zones of inhibition of 33.3±0.0, 30.1±0.3, 17.2±1.0 and 15.0±0.1 mm were recorded from the dry alcoholic extract of zobo leaf on E. coli given similar concentrations and the MIC was observed at the 0.031 µg/mL concentration. The result also showed that out of the four concentrations of the dry hot aqueous extract, only the 0.25 µg/mL concentration was able to show 14.2±0.0 mm inhibition on S. aureus, while the concentrations of 0.25 µg/ml and 0.125 µg/mL were the only two concentrations of the dry alcohol that showed levels of sensitivity with zone diameters of 29.3±1.0 and 25.2±0.0, respectively.

Conclusion: The plant extracts of zobo leaves which displayed remarkable activity at fairly-low concentrations could be recommended for use against similar bacteria. Thus, investigation and adoption of plant extracts in modern medicine should be encouraged as this may be the break through needed to combat the ever-increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Plant Growth-promoting Fungi (PGPF), as a Biofertilizer and Biocontrol Agents against Tetranychus cucurbitacearum on Nubian Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

Rabab Hammad, Mohssen Elbagory

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v16i230119

Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have attracted considerable interest as biofertilizers and biocontrol due to their multiple beneficial effects on plant quantity and quality as well as their positive relationship with the ecological environment. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of different concentrations 25, 50, 75 and 100% from cultural filtrate of Trichoderma viride and T. harzianum to induce the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus cucurbitacearum (In vitro), and their ability to improve the growth dynamics of Nubian watermelon plants in field experiment during two growing summer seasons of 2017 and 2018.

In general the effect of tested concentrations of T. viride were non effective on egg deposition by adult females after five days from treatment, while in T. harzianum, the concentration 75% was the most effect than the other concentrations. Also, egg hatchability % decreased with increased of two egg age (1 – 2 day old) at treatment by concentrations 25 and 50% of both fungal. In field experiment, the test compound (vertimec) was the more effective against egg stage of spider mite T. cucurbitacearum than motile stages of both T. viride and T. harzianum treatments. Also, plants inoculated with T. harzianum showed increases in vegetative growth parameters included numbers of leaves, Leaf dry weight, stem length and numbers of branches and biochemical analysis of leaves included chlorophyll content and percentages of NPK at 30 and 60 days from sowing during both seasons compared to uninoculated control plants. Also, enzymes activities, treatment T2 (inoculated with T. viride) recorded the highest values at all growth stages, which recorded 155.77, 257.29 and 114.62 mg TPF g-1 soil day-1 for dehydrogenase and 113.79, 201.03 and 115.24 mg NH4+- N g-1 soil d-1 for urease at 30, 60 and harvest during 2017 growing season, respectively. The same trend was observed in total count of fungi during both seasons.

For fruit yield, T. viride (T2) had significantly the highest number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, fruit weight (g) and dry weight of 100 seeds (g) which recorded 1.92, 273.07, 1126 g and 16.29 g as compared to untreated control treatment, which attained 1.21, 185.08, 526.66 g and 14.41 g at 2017 season, respectively. Therefore, these results reflected to increase fruit yield (Kg/m2), seed yield (g/m2) and weight of yield (ton fed.-1) during both seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eco-Toxicological Assessment of Local and Industrial Refined Kerosene on Pollution Bio-Monitor Pseudomonas sp. in Tri-Aquatic Ecosystem

Renner Renner Nrior, Chidinma Grace Daokoru-Olukole, Godswill Ekine Limejuice

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v16i230120

Aim: To investigate eco-toxicity of local and industrial refined kerosene on pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. in tri-aquatic ecosystem (Marine, brackish and freshwater).

Study Design: The study employs experimental examination and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation. It was designed to evaluate the different kerosene concentration and the duration of exposure that could cause potential toxicological effect on Pseudomonas sp. in tri-aquatic ecosystem.

Place of Study: Fresh water, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in four litre (4L) sterile containers. Fresh water sample was collected from Asarama Andoni; brackish water from Eagle Island while marine water was collected from Bonny River in Bonny L.G.A., all in Rivers state, Southern, Nigeria. The locally refined kerosene was gotten from Okrika mainland, while the industrially refined kerosene was obtained from Chinda filling station, UST roundabout, Mile 3 Port Harcourt. The study lasted for three months.

Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity procedure were applied using local and industrial refined kerosene; prepared at concentrations of 1.625%, 3.25%, 6.5%, 12.5% and 25% in fresh, brackish and marine water. These were tested with Pseudomonas sp. for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24h separately for each toxicant. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 24 hours. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was employed to compute the toxicities of the different toxicants on the test organism.

Results: The results specify that percentage (%) logarithm of mortality of Pseudomonas sp. increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. demonstrated sensitivity to the toxicity of local and industrially refined kerosene. The sensitivity showed variations, toxic level decreased in the following order (noting that the lower the LC50, the more toxic the toxicants): Industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (18.80%) > Industrial refined kerosene in brackish water (20.81%) > Local refined kerosene in brackish water (21.48%) > Industrial refined kerosene in marine water (22.20%) > Local refined kerosene (24.26) > Local refined kerosene in marine water (24.92%).  Industrial refined kerosene was seen to be more toxic in fresh water and local refined kerosene was found to be least toxic in marine water.

Conclusion: The study showed that industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (LC50 = 18.8%) has the highest toxicity strength while local refined kerosene in marine water (LC50 = 24.92%) has the least toxicity strength on Pseudomonas sp. in the tri-aquatic ecosystem. These results show that local and industrial refined kerosene can inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas sp. in an aquatic ecosystem; noting that Pseudomonas sp. is one of the most effective biodegrading bacteria in ecological biogeochemical cycles, pollutant removal/remediation and a key pollution bio-monitor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salmonella Carriage among Patients in Fako Division, Cameroon: A Cross-sectional Study of Its Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

Awung Nkeza, Njunda Longdoh Anna, Assob Nguedia Jules Clement

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2019/v16i230121

Introduction: This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonellosis in patients who were consulted in some medical facilities in Fako Division of Cameroon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2017 to November 2018 in three hospitals in Fako division of Cameroon; Tiko District Hospital, Mutengene Medical Center and Buea Regional Hospital. A total of 510 individuals presenting with symptoms of Salmonellosis were administered comprehensive questionnaire. Salmonella enterica strains were cultured from stool and identified using API 20E. Data was entered into Excel and imported into STATA v.12 for Windows, for statistical analysis. Odd ratios were calculated to determine the risk factors associated with Salmonellosis.

Results: Fifty Salmonella enterica strains were isolated giving a prevalence of 9.8%. Univariate analysis showed the following risk factors for Salmonellosis: area of residence; suburban p=0.037, OR=5.7 95% CI (1.1-30.03) and rural p=0.077, OR=2.3 95% CI (0.91-5.76), overcrowding (2 persons in a room) p=0.047, OR=2.3 95% CI (1.01-5.41); drinking tap-water, p=0.032 OR=0.38(.16-.092); left-over drugs from the pharmacy, p=0.906 OR= 1.07(0.32-3.55) as being relatively significant risk factors.

Conclusion: The prevalence was found to be higher among the very young and older people greater than 45 years. The risk factors identified in this study are: age, area of residence; overcrowding; consuming locally prepared yoghurt or Kosam; eating out or auto-medication by taking leftover drugs. These findings highlight the need of reinforcement of hygiene promotion especially in infants and overpopulated communities, educate on proper prescription and usage of drugs, in addition to the intensification of environmental interventions.