Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Microsporum canis in Companion Animals from Selected Local Government Areas in Abia State

Nwiyi, Paul Okechukwu, Ottah, Betsy

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130295

The aim of the study is to isolate and identify Microsporum canis from companion animals (dogs and cats) in three local government areas of Abia State. A total of one hundred and fifty skin scrapings from infected dogs (100) and cats (50) were screened. Saboruad destroxe agar was used for the culture and Needle mount technique was adopted. Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LCB) was used for staining. Demographic indices like; age, sex, and breed of the animals were considered. This organism at macroscopy appears as white, light yellow, cottony to powdery colonies. At microscopic view, the spores of M. canis appear as large and spindle shaped with thick wall. The dogs has a predominant isolation rate of 36.0%.The female dogs and cats presented the highest frequency of occurrence at 58.2% and 63.6% respectively. Dogs of 9months old and above had more M. canis isolation rate at 70.0%, while cats between 5 and 8months of age had the highest isolation rate at 33.3%. Dogs and cats at 1 to 4 months of age had the least M. canis isolation rate at 7.5% and 14.5% respectively. The indigenous breeds of dogs had the highest isolation rate of M. canis at 53.8% while the Caucasian breed was the least at 7.7%. Statistical analysis shows that (p=.05) there is significance in isolation rate of M. canis in dogs and cats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Increase in Yield of Tropical Grasses Inoculated with Spirillum lipoferum

N. N. Ngerebara, L. O. Amadi, G. C. Vincent

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130296

Increase in yield of tropical grasses viz. digit grass (Digitaria decumbens), guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and pearl millet (Penisetum americanum) inoculated with tropical nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Spirillum lipoferum was investigated. The study was carried out for three consecutive years (2016-2018). Dry matter yields and protein content of the three tropical grasses were used for the assessment. In 2017, pearl millet (Penisetum americanum) and guinea grass (Panicum maximum) produced significantly higher protein content and dry matter yields. Projected yields using regression analysis of both pearl millet and guinea grass indicated that about 40kgN ha-1 yr-1 were replaced by inoculation. Although, protein production of guinea grass was lower during 2018, dry matter yield responses were similar to those of 2017. This research has shown that inoculation with Spirillum lipoferum, a tropical nitrogen-fixing bacterium reduced acetylene and increased yields or reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirement of the tropical grasses as well as replacement of up to 40KgN ha-1. This amount is agro-economically important and suggests the viability and potential for grass-bacteria systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Research of the Effects of EVODROP Silver Nanoparticle on Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Coliforms

Nedyalka Valcheva, Ignat Ignatov, Fabio Huether

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 22-31
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130297

The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological effects of EVODROP Silver Nanoparticle. A comparative analysеs of the number of bacteria of a given species before and after influence wеre performed.

Nanoparticle Silver makes physical changes in the bacterial membrane, like the membrane damage, which can lead to cellular contents leakage and bacterial death [1,2,3]. There are effects of Nanoparticle Silver against SARS-CoV-2. The coronavirus gets replicated via copying of the genetic material using the enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [4,5].

The membranes of the cells of mammals don’t have peptidoglycans and Ag+ has not inhibiting effect [6]. In such a way it prevents the further alteration of the enzymes.

In Japanese study there are proofs that Nanoparticle Silver inhibiting extracellular SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 ppm while cytotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 20 ppm and above [7]. There is objective research of the effects of Nanoparticle Silver on the virus SARS-CoV-2 with Inhalation in Israel [8].

The author of the device EVOhygiene Fabio Huether performs liquid with concentration 20 ppm nano silver and size of nano particles 5 nm.

The virucidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) allows its wider application in the annihilation or amelioration of several viral infections such as Poliovirus type-1, Coxsackievirus B3, influenza A virus, SARS-CoV-2 etc. [9]

There is publication in Nature Nanotechnology for the effects of Silver Nanoparticles as disinfectant against SARS-CoV-2 [10].

The research show effects of EVODROP Silver Nanoparticle on the following bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Coliforms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Assessment of Hydrolytic Potentials of Fungal Isolates from Crude Oil Impacted Soil Ecosystem in Varied Media Formulations

J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130298

Background of the Study: A quantitative assessment of different enzymes that produce the best of hydrolyses of starch, skim milk, carboxymathlcellulose (CMC) and groundnut oil which were further assessed for the production of extracellular enzyme. 

Aim: The study aimed at assessing some of the fungal isolates for their abilities to produce the following hydrolytic enzymes; amylase, protease, cellulase and lipase using different medium. Material and Methods:  About 19 fungal species associated with crude oil impacted soil ecosystem. Soil parameters taken were pH, organic matter, water holding capacity and moisture content. Analysis of variance were used to test the effects at statistical significance of P ≤ 0. 05 among the treatments and tukey post hoc tests were used to rank the means.

Results: A. fumigatus, A. niger, A.terreus and Basipetospora has the highest frequency of occurrence. A. fumigatus 2 has the highest amylase activity (80mm) while A. clavatus recorded the least (10mm) amylotic activity. A. fumigatus 2 recorded the highest hydrolytic zone of 66.67 mm, followed by A. fumigatus 3 (65 mm) and Curvularialunata which recorded 60mm, respectively. It was revealed that pH of polluted soil sample from the three plots were more acidic than the control (non-polluted soil) 4.81 and 5.72 for plot 1, 5.58 and 6.08 for plot 2 and 5.15 and 6.57 for plot 3 respectively. The water holding capacity, organic matter and moisture content in the polluted soil ranged from 15.02-17.27%, 7.34-8.99 mgkg-1 and 1.23-4.60%, respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that aspergillus species exhibited maximum hydrolytic potentials of the fungal isolates using different media formulations and these results could provide basic data for further investigations on molecular characterization of fungal extracellular enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Total Coliforms and Bacteria during Dry and Wet Seasons in Rivers of Sigor Division, West Pokot County, Kenya

Nyasimi Ayora Gershom, Kirui Stella, Maingi John, Kebira Anthony

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130299

Aims: There has been an increase in gastro-intestinal and urinary infections in Sigor division, West Pokot, Kenya. These infections result from bacteria and coliforms which are majorly propagated in water systems. Residents of this area are pastoralists and small-scale farmers relying on river water for their consumption and economic needs. This study aimed at characterizing the strains and quantities of bacteria and coliforms in the four rivers during the wet and dry seasons.

Study Design:  An independent measures design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were taken from four rivers (Weiwei, Chesogon, Lomut and Muruny) in Sigor division, West Pokot county, Kenya. The study was conducted between January and October 2013.

Methodology: Sampling was done at various points of the river in a stratified manner for characterization and analysis. Four main pathogens namely E. coli, V. cholerae, Shigella and Salmonella species as well as F. streptococci were isolated, cultured using different media and characterized. Further biochemical tests were conducted to confirm the exact strains present. Total viable counts for the bacteria and coliforms were then enumerated.

Results: The results found out that E. coli, V. cholerae, Salmonella and Shigella species were abundant in the rivers while F. streptococci were only observed during the wet season. Biochemical tests conducted on the isolates revealed that the strains co-existed in the water samples. Weiwei river had the greatest number of bacteria strains. Muruny river was found to have the largest population of bacteria colony forming units (cfu’s). There was a large disparity in cfu’s in the rivers during the dry seasons. Chesogon river had the highest population of coliform units.

Conclusion: The raw water in all the rivers were concluded to be unsafe for human consumption according to WHO standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocompatibility Effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma Strains on Growth, Nodulation and Physiological Traits of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

Sahar El- Nahrawy, Mohssen Elbagory, Alaa El-Dein Omara

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 52-66
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130300

In the future, drought are expected to increase, affecting the productivity of crops sensitive to water scarcity. Through N2-fixation process, soybean is capable of achieving its nitrogen demands, however, this process is inhibited under drought stress conditions. Therefore, it is vital to find suitable solutions for the agricultural sustainability of soybean.

Under pot experiment, biocompatibility was studied between Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum and T. kongii) for their ability to stimulate the growth, nodulation, N content and photosynthetic pigments of soybean plants under different irrigation intervals (every 2 days (I1), every 4 days (I2), and every 6 days (I3)). The experiment was conducted in summer 2020 with a split-plot randomized complete block design and six replicates. Among the Trichoderma strains, T. harzianum was the most tolerant to growth and auxin production in the maximum 25% PEG 6000 (poly ethylene glycol) concentration. Also, co-inoculation treatment (irrigation every 6 days and inoculation with B. japonicum + T. harzianum) recorded an increase rate reached to 69.4% for shoot length, 102.53% for root length, 79.06% for shoot dry weight, 103.44% for root dry weight and 178.57% for N content compared to control treatment. For physiological traits (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and total soluble sugar), there was a significant increase was observed when soybean plants inoculated with B. japonicum + T. harzianum treatment followed by B. japonicum + T. kongii treatment, under irrigation every 6 days condition. On the contrary, a decrease was observed in proline content for the same treatments. Thus, an adequate microbial consortium of Bradyrhizobium - Trichoderma, could represent a promising practical method for increasing the productivity of soybean especially when grown under drought conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pullulanase Debranching and Retrogradation on Resistant Starch Yield and Glycemic Index of Garri

F. C. Ogbo, N. C. Nwozor

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130301

Aims: This research is aimed at developing a method of processing to increase the quantity of resistant starch in garri and reduce its glycemic index using pullulanase-producing Bacillus subtilis organism.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of applied microbiology and brewing, Nnnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka between January, 2018 and February, 2019.

Methodology: The organism was isolated from different cassava processing sites in Anambra metropolis, Nigeria. It was then identified based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics After which the pullulanase assay, the fermentation studies, resistant starch analysis and glycemic index was analysed.

Results: Pullulanase assay result showed Bacillus subtilis as a very good pullulanase producing organism with a pullulanase quantity of. The resistant starch content was found to be higher for the samples fermented with the choice organism and retrograded at 10oC at 14.29%, than the control garri sample fermented without any organism and not retrograded at 4.73%. The glycemic index was relatively high in all the garri samples, however, the lowest glycemic index, 62% was observed in the garri sample produced with the choice organism.

Conclusion: This research has been able to show that pullulanase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis is a very useful industrial raw material in production of functional foods with low glycemic index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumonia Isolated from Patients Admitted in Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

Enas Sh. Khater, AbdAlazim A. AlFaki, Shehata Said Abd Elmoaty

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 76-85
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130302

Background: Carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging threat worldwide causing high rates of morbidity and mortality

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumonia (CRKP), associated risk factors, type of infections caused by CRKP and their antimicrobial susceptibility. To evaluate Carbapenemase Detection Set (D70C) as screening test for CRKP

Place and Duration of the Study: A cross sectional study and prospective cohort study was performed from June 2019 to February 2020 in intensive care unit and medical units of Al Quwayiyah General hospital.

Methodology: 541 samples were collected from different patient sources. Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was only selected identified to the species level and AST was done using the Vitek-2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of meropenem and imipenem was carried out. A Carbapenemase Detection Set (D70C) was used as screening test for CRKP while Modified Hodge test and multiplex PCR as confirmatory tests.

Results: A total of 132 isolates were diagnosed as Enterobacteriaceae out of 541 patient samples.78 clinical isolates were klebsiella pneumoniae which were collected. Out of the 78 clinical isolates CRKP were 36 (46.2%) and CSKP were 42 (53.8%).) CRKP cases aged from (18-84 years) with the median patient age 59 year. Seventeen of 36 patients (47.2%) were males. the majority of the nosocomial CRKP infections were pneumonia 12 (33.3%) followed by urinary tract infection 9 (25%). The most common associated disease was diabetes (30%) followed by renal disease (27.8%). For invasive procedures, Urinary catheter was 27(75%) and 29(69%) followed by Mechanical ventilation 25(69.4%) and 22(52.4%) in CRKP and CSKP patients respectively. Reports of PCR for the 41 isolates which sent to regional laboratory for confirmation revealed that 36 isolates had carbapenemase genes; twenty eight (77.8%) K. pneumonia isolates positive for bla OXA-48 and 5 (13.9%) isolates were positive for blaNDM. in 2 (5.6%) bla KPC were detected, one isolate contained blaIMP. 5 isolates contain both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM. The sensitivity of MHT was analysed to be 91.7%. (95%Cl ratio 77.53% - 98.25%) and the specificity was 100% (95%Cl ratio 54.07% to 100%). The positive predictive value was 100% and the Negative predictive value was 66.7% ( 95%Cl ratio 40.36% to 85.53%). The sensitivity of Carbapenemase Detection Set (D70C) was 94.4% (81.34% to 99.32%) and the specificity was 80% (95%Cl ratio 28.36% to 99.49%). The positive predictive value was 97.1% (95%Cl ratio 85.46% to 99.49%).and the Negative predictive value was 66.7% (95%Cl ratio 32.67% to 89.18%).

Conclusion: CRKP prevalence was 46.2% among K. pneumoniae isolates in Al Quwayiya General Hospital. Using invasive procedures such as urinary catheters or mechanical ventilator and misuse of antibiotics were risk factors associated with CRKP indicating that infection control guidelines and effective preventive measures should be strictly applied. It is very important to monitor and report changes in antimicrobial-resistant isolates but Carbapenemase Detection Set (D70C) has low specificity makes it less reliable and need PCR confirmation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) and Their Antagonistic Activity against Two Banana Pathogens

Eric Ngalani Tchamgoue, Sandrine Aimée Youte Fanche, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Florentina Matei, Maximilienne Ascension Nyegue

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 86-101
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130304

Aims: The present study was carried out to determine the diversity of endophytic fungi that colonize the leaves of Psidium guajava, and to evaluate their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense and Mycosphaerella fijiensis which are the two main phytopathogens of banana plants.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I and Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Biotechnologies, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, between April 2018 and February 2020.

Methodology: Fragments of surface sterilized leaves of Psidium guajava were inoculated on Potato Dextrose Agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The isolated and purified endophytic fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic characters using a mycological atlas as guide. The non-sporulating isolates were identified by comparing the ITS regions of their DNA to those of known fungi registered in the GenBank database. The antagonistic activity of the endophytic fungi isolated against Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis was screened using dual culture method.

Results: A total of 28 endophytic fungal were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava corresponding to a colonization frequency of 33.33%. These isolates were identified as: Aspergillus sp., Botryosphaeria sp., Fusarium sp., Neoscytalidium sp., Xylaria sp., Phyllosticta capitalensis, Cercospora apii, Xylaria longipes, Phomopsis sp., Phomopsis asparagi, Aspergillus versicolor, Pallidocercospora thailandica, and Xylaria grammica that belonged to the Deuteromycota and Ascomycota divisions. These endophytic fungi inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense and Mycosphaerella fijiensis with the percentage inhibition varying respectively from 23.25% to 73.52% and from 21.36% to 100%. The species Botryosphaeria sp., Phomopsis sp., Phomopsis asparagi, and Xylaria longipes exhibited the greatest activity.

Conclusion: The leaves of Psidium guajava have a fairly varied diversity of endophytic fungi. These endophytic fungi can serve as potential biological control agents against Panama and Sigatoka diseases of banana and also would produce secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

Open Access Review Article

The Efficacy of Remdesivir Drug to Control the Recently Emerged Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A Review Study

Humera Batool, Mizba Baksh, Khatja Batool, Zainab Rafique, Sibghatullah Shahab, Ghulam Muhammad Humayun

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1130294

Introduction: Remdesivir is among the investigational drugs which show some promising effect against COVID-19, it may be due to its broad-spectrum antiviral action against some RNA viruses. To date very few clinical studies have been conducted on the use of remdesivir to the treatment of COVID-19. The main objective of the present study was, to conduct a review on the effect of Remdesivir to the treatment of COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review on the effect of remdesivir drug to the treatment of COVID-19.

Methodology: We have searched PubMed, for published studies on assessing the effect of remdesivir drug among patients with confirmed COVID-19. The main search terms used were “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2”, “remdesivir”, and “systematic review”.

Results: Only 11 research articles were found eligible for enclosure in this systematic review, among selected studies only two were randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir. Data on the efficacy of remdesivir in the patients with confirmed COVID-19 from clinical Phase-III trials are still pending. Recently, in the latter half of May month, results of two hospital based randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials studies were reported, both the studies found that remdesivir was efficient in the treatment of patients with confirmed COVID-19. However, Wang et al., (2020) found that remdesivir treatment was not significantly associated with clinical benefits.

Conclusion: From the systematic review, the use of remdesivir to cure patients with confirms COVID-19 was found promising; however, further clinical studies with large patient size need to be considered. The efficacy and safety of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 will require to be emphasized in future research studies.