Open Access Original Research Article

Culture-Based Characterization of Bacteria Associated with Fish Pond Wastewater Undergoing Treatment Using Plants

C. C. Niyi-David, S. A. Wemedo, N. P. Akani, S. I. Douglas

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530346

Fish pond wastewater management is one of the problems having the greatest impact on the environment. This untreated fish pond waste water contains organic materials, pathogenic microorganisms, nutrients and toxic compounds, which when discharged into the environment and it runs off into the water bodies in excess could cause algal bloom (eutrophication) of the receiving waters. Port Harcourt is a riverine area, many of the fish farmers discharge their wastewater direct into the water bodies or into drainages that flows into the water bodies and this act is harmful to humans and the environment as a whole.

The determination of the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics and remediation of fish wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were investigated. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of fish pond wastewater were monitored at intervals from 1-70days. Fish wastewater samples were collected from twelve fish ponds (6 plastic tanks and 6 concrete tanks) using standard procedures.  Identification of bacteria was carried out using colonial morphological and biochemical characteristics of the isolates. A total of 194 bacterial isolates belonging to eleven genera were identified from the twelve fish ponds with 6 concrete tanks having  total heterotrophic bacteria, coliform counts, Salmonella Shigella counts, feacal coliform count, Vibro count,  and Pseudomonad count that ranged from 4.78 ± 0.5×104 to 5.74 ± 0.39×105, 4.06 ± 0.06 ×104, to 5.8 ± 0.43 ×105, 4.3 ± 0.24×104 to 4.99 ±0.42 ×104, 4.18 ± 0.39 ×104 to 5.08 ± 0.43 ×105 , 4.08±0.35 x 105 to 5.24±0.46 x 105 and 4.1 ± 0.3× 104 to 5.15 ± 0.44 ×104 cfu/ml, respectively and 6 plastic tanks having  total heterotrophic bacteria, coliform counts, Salmonella Shigella counts, feacal coliform count, Vibro count,  and pseudomonad count that ranged from 4.55 ± 0.46×104 to 5.74 ± 0.4×105, 4.43 ± 0.23 ×104, to 5.78 ± 0.36 ×105, 4.00 ± 0.5×104 to 5.00 ±0.47 ×105, 4.18 ± 0.39 ×104 to 5.17 ± 0.45 ×105 , 3.78±0.35x103 to 5.24 ± 0.46x105 and 3.81 ± 0.26× 103 to 5.15 ± 0.44 ×105 cfu/ml, respectively. The bacteria isolates were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Vibrio and Shigella sp. The presence of these organisms is an indication of lack of qualitative pond management which could become harmful to both fishes andhumans in the food web systems. Therefore, there is the need to protect our water sources for aquaculture purposes and sustainable development through the detection of aquatic infectious substances and possible control of these microbes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai, India

Rashmita Das, Shilpa Patil, Kavita Balakrishnan, Chaitali Bhagat, Arunagiri Subramanian, Rajas Warke, Abhay Chowdhary

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530347

Background: Malaria is caused by parasites of genus Plasmodium. It remains a major public health concern around the world. Though various diagnostic tools are available, there is an urgent need to use a more sensitive diagnostic method for early diagnosis to prevent unwanted outcomes.

Objectives: (i) To assess the prevalence of malaria in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai (ii) To detect and speciate Plasmodium by Peripheral Blood Smear (PBS), Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and to compare their performance characteristics.

Methodology: A hospital-based diagnostic study was carried over a period of 18 months. A total of 550 non-duplicated blood samples from clinically suspected cases of malaria were collected and subjected to three tests- PBS by Field’s staining, RDT and PCR to detect Plasmodium species. The agreement and the differences between the three tests were analyzed and the statistical significance was assessed using Chi-square test.

Results: Out of the 550 samples, 166 (30.2%) were positive for malaria by either of the three tests, of which 92 (55.42%), 119 (71.69%) and 161 (96.99%) samples were positive by PBS, RDT and PCR, respectively. P. vivax was the predominant Plasmodium species. The most significant finding was PCR detected mixed infections in 8.43% of cases whereas PBS and RDT could detect 0% and 1.20% of mixed infection, respectively. Considering PBS as gold standard, sensitivity of RDT and PCR was 100% and 97.83% and specificity was 94.10% and 84.50% respectively.

Conclusions: In this study, 30% of the population was infected with malaria with P. vivax being the predominant Plasmodium species. PCR helped identify more mono and mixed infections than conventional methods and would be a helpful adjunct for malaria diagnosis in tertiary care setup.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Daniella oliveri on Biochemical and Haematological Parameters of Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65

Muhammed Muazu, Karderam Bukar Dikwa, Deborah Madi Dibal, Muhammed Danjuma, Gideon Obaje Sunday, Yahaya Junaidu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530348

The rapid emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Artemisinin derivatives and all the conventional antimalarial drugs necessitates the importance of ethnobotany, resulting in need to study the antiplasmodial potentials and the resultant effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Daniella oliveri (D.oliveri) on the biochemical and haematological parameters of the infected and treated albino mice. A total of 30 mice were randomized to six groups; 1 (positive control), 2 (negative control), 3 (normal control), 4, 5 and 6 (treatment groups) of five mice per group, body weights of mice were measured before and after infection and treatments, the mice were Infected intravenously with 0.2 ml of 1x107 standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected erythrocytes on the first day (day 0), treatment commence 72 hours later (day 3), continued for 5 days to terminate on day 7. On day 8, the Swiss Albino mice used for antiplasmodial activity were subjected to euthanasia under chloroform, aseptically dissected and blood was collected through cardiac puncture in lithium heparin bottle for biochemical assays and in an ethylene diamine tetra- acetic acid (EDTA) bottles for haematological assays.All mice in the treatment group showed decrease in body weight except for normal control group that showed increase in body weight. Methanolic leaf extract of D.oliveri contains some secondary metabolites that are hepato-protective in nature with no significant effects on the biochemical and hematological parameters of the malaria infected and treated albino mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative effects of Lime and Garlic extracts on the Bacterial Load and Nutritional Quality of processed Shrimps (Penaeus notialis) from Sombreiro River, River State

K. C. Nwaogwugwu, B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere, O. K. Agwa, N. U. Nwogwugwu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530349

Shrimps are highly valued worldwide. They deteriorate rapidly after harvest except preserved. This study was undertaken to determine the bacterial load and nutritional quality of shrimps subjected to 20% lime juice, 50% garlic extract and distilled water followed by smoking and storage at ambient (room) temperature for 28 days. Fresh shrimp samples from Sombreiro River in Degema Local Government Area of Rivers State were used for this study. The Shrimps were analyzed for total viable counts (TVCs), Coliform, Staphylococcal, Vibrio, Salmonella, and Shigella counts. The control samples had highest protein content of 21.2±0.018 immediately after treatment while after smoking, samples treated with lime and garlic had higher protein content; highest in samples treated with lime juice with protein content of 63.27±1.20, garlic-treated samples and control sample had protein content of 60.5±2.49 and 51.27±10.76 respectively at end of storage. Garlic-treated samples had highest ash content of 15.46±0.11, lime-treated samples and control had ash content of 13.29±0.11 and 11.75±0.11 at the end of storage period. There were slight increases in nutrient level with storage. Samples treated with lime juice had lowest bacterial count throughout the four weeks of storage. At day 0, samples treated with lime, garlic- treated samples and control had total viable count of 1.7×103, 2.11×103 and 4.5×104 respectively, at the end of storage period. Lime-treated samples, garlic-treated samples and control had coliform count of 2.3×102, 5.89×102 and 5.27×104 respectively at the end of storage period. Total Staphylococcal count for lime-treated samples, garlic-treated samples and control at the end storage period were 4.9×102, 4.8×102 and3.5×103 respectively. Samples treated with lime and garlic had no Vibrio, Salmonella and Shigella after smoking till end of storage. In this study 20% lime juice proved more effective against bacteria though with no significant difference (p>0.05) and increased the nutritional value of smoked shrimps more than 50% garlic extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas in Tertiary Care Centre of Kutch

Krupali Kothari, Dolly Solanki

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 45-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530350

Aim: The current research was performed with an aim to discover the prevalence of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa and also to provide as a direct for doctors administration subjects by executing suitable infection control events as well as inventing an efficient antibiotic policy.

Materials and Methods: The current research was performed in the Department of Microbiology at Gujarat Adani Institute of Medical Science, Bhuj, Kutch, Gujarat over a period for one year. All 250 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquired from different clinical samples established in microbiology laboratory from IPD & OPD were incorporated in the research. Different clinical specimens established in our laboratory were coursed and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recognized as apiece normal microbiological method. All isolates were subjected for ESBL screening test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby.

Results: Highest samples established from middle age group (30- 50). Out of 250 isolates, 177 (70.7%) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrated zone of inhibition≤ 22 mm for Ceftazidime. All ESBL positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates demonstrated elevated confrontation to ciprofloxacin 43 (91.04%), Gentamicin 34 (72.3%) and tobramycin 33 (70.21%).

Conclusion: The majority of isolates were from hospitalized subjects which point out additional probability of their nosocomial predominance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality Assessment of a Segment of Asa River Water, Ilorin, Nigeria

Fausat Abimbola Jimoh, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530351

The existence of all living organisms depends on water resource which is continually polluted, and is therefore of public health importance. This study investigated river water samples for physicochemical and bacteriological quality of post-office segment of Asa river in Ilorin using standard procedures and the isolates were also identified with standard methods. Eight selected antibiotics used were in this study to determine the trend of susceptibility of the microorganisms to some of the antibiotics. The values recorded for physicochemical parameters of the water samples were within the limits of WHO standard for safe drinking water. The temperature of the water samples ranged between 21.0 and 28.40C while water pH ranged from 7.1 to 7.5. The total heterotrophic count values ranged between 1.2×104 and 7.8×104 cfu/ml, total coliform count values ranged between 4.0×102 and 1.0×104 cfu/100ml, total fecal count values were between 0 and 5.9×103 cfu/100ml some of which were found to be higher than the WHO stipulated values prescribed for river water. Large amount of the bacteria isolated from this water indicated that the water source is a reservoir for many waterborne pathogens; this includes Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus  and Streptococcus sp. Approximately 75% of the isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin and 50% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, while the entire organisms were resistant to augmentin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone. It was inferred that, the selected of segment of the river analyzed revealed high levels of pollution with antibiotic resistant organisms hence not suitable for human consumption without implementing appropriate purification and  treatment regimen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses, and HIV among Antenatal Pregnant Women in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Onwe, Reuben O., Maduka-Okafor, Charles C., Nwachukwu, Ebuka C., Ike, Anthony C.

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 60-68
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530352

Aim: Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV infections remain major global health concerns as causes of high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of HBsAg antibody, anti-Hepatitis C and HIV 1 and 2 antibodies in antenatal pregnant women in Nsukka, Nigeria.

Study Design, Area and Duration of Study: The study utilized both experimental and survey designs. Blood samples were collected from women attending antenatal clinics in two prominent hospitals in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria from April to August 2016.

Methods: Blood samples from 200 pregnant women were collected into plain vacutainers and allowed to clot. The serum was separated and used to test for antibodies to the viral infections using rapid test kits with immobilized antigens following the manufacturer’s instructions. Additional information was collected using standard questionnaire. 

Results: From the results, 11 (5.5%), 9 (4.5%) and 5 (2.5%) women tested positive for HBsAg antibody, anti-HCV and HIV 1 and 2 antibodies, respectively. None of the patients was co-infected with HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HCV/HIV or triple infections with HBV/HCV/HIV. The mean age distribution was 28.2 years (Standard Deviation = 6.46). Marital status, age distribution and occupation were found to be statistically insignificant to the prevalence of HBsAg antibody, anti-HCV and HIV 1 and 2 antibodies (P > 0.05). Blood transfusion and history of previous surgeries were the risk factors for HBsAg and HIV 1 and 2 antibodies (P < 0.05), but not for anti- HCV (P> 0.05) among the study population. None of the respondents had body tattoo or admitted to have multiple sexual partners.

Conclusion: There are still high seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV among antenatal pregnant women in the study area. Hence, there is need for integration of hepatitis screening tests among the antenatal pregnant women in the town.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Ascariasis among Children in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

M. E. Okoh, I. W. Nyinoh, L. N. Utume, T. T. Terzunwe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 69-73
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i530353

This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of ascariasis among children of 1-15 years old in Wadata, Wurukum, Northbank, Fiidi, and Modern market of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Prevalence of Ascariasis among children was conducted between January to march 2020. A total of 230 stool samples were randomly collected from children of both sexes and analyzed, using formol-ether concentration technique to determine the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides. Out of the samples analyzed, 64(27.83%) were positive for Ascariasis. Wadata had the highest prevalence of 23(35.92%). There was a direct relationship between the parasite load and the location (P<0.05). There was also a positive correlation (P<0.05) between the parasite load and the family size. Children that were provided with modern toilet facilities had the lowest prevalence 13(20%). Children of farmers recorded 23(35.94%). Hence ascariasis is endemic in Makurdi. There should be grassroots enlightment on sanitation and hygiene. There is need for provision of screening materials and drugs at affordable rate to all patients. Communities should also embark on environmental sanitation and personal hygiene to curb the menace.