Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Storage Tanks in a Tertiary Institution in Rivers State, Nigeria

N. P. Akani, T. Sampson, G. C. Disegha, V. Vincent-Okwuosa

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 6-17
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630355

Water quality analysis is essential in assessing the suitability of different water sources used for various purposes, including industrial and domestic uses. This study was therefore aimed at determining the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of water samples from different storage facilities in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study involved eighty (80) water samples obtained from water storage tanks situated at 16 locations within the premises of the institution, to ascertain the physicochemical property, presence and population of different bacterial groups influencing the quality of these water sources. In-situ and ex-situ physicochemical analyses as well as bacteriological investigations were carried out on all samples, using standard laboratory procedures. Results of physicochemical analysis showed that the pH ranged from 4.15±0.14 to 7.16±0.08; conductivity, from 50.55±0.49 (µs/cm) to 364.00±2.83; salinity, from 0.02±0 (ppt) to 0.18±0; temperature, from 27oC to 28oC; Chloride, from 1.03±0.06 (mg/l) to 10.80±0.79; total alkalinity, from 4.00±0 (mg/l) to 11.00±1.41; Dissolved oxygen from 3.04±.020 to 7.36±0.08 (Mg/l) and BOD ranged from 0.81±0 to 4.23±0.09 (Mg/l). Results for bacterial population showed total heterotrophic bacteria ranging from 1.03±1.19 x 103   CFU/ml in water from reservoir tanks at the Faculty of Engineering, to 5.89±2.59 x 103   CFU/ml at Road A Block B; total coliform count ranged from 0 CFU/ml in most samples, to 10.00±2.36 x 102 CFU/ml in Block B reservoir tanks. Water reservoirs in clinic area recorded the highest Salmonella/Shigella counts (1.00±0.23 x 101   CFU/ml) with other stations having zero counts. Hall F (Hostel Ext) on the other hand had the highest counts for Vibrio (2.20±3.01 x 101 CFU/ml). The phenotypic characterization identified Citrobacter spp. as the most occurring (27.27%) bacterial isolate in the study, followed by Alcaligenes faecalis and Klebsiella spp. (18.18% each). Enterobacter spp., Edwardsiella spp., Erwinia psidii, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Providentia spp. and Salmonella spp. all appeared as the least occurring, having a percentage of 4.55%, each. Tatumella spp. on the other hand had a percentage occurrence of 9.09%. This study has buttressed the need for increased water hygiene of reservoir tanks as well as water sources in these locations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters and Microbiological Quality of Water Samples Obtained from Mbiaso River and Enang Stream in Ikot Ekpene Metropolis

Ekanem, Jonathan Okokon, Akpan, Nyaknoabasi Ime, Zorbari, Glory Msubaritoma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630356

The physicochemical, microbiological and heavy metal studies of water samples obtained from Mbiaso River and Enang Stream were investigated. Water samples were collected from two locations with two sampling points from each location along the course of the water body based on their use by the community and analysed using standard procedures. The results obtained were compared with WHO standards for drinking and recreational water. Aside titratable acidity, titratable alkalinity and BOD, all other physicochemical parameters were within the permissible standards. All the heavy metals concentrations were above the permissible limits except for Lead (Pb) that ranged between 0.01mg/l to 0.05 mg/l for all the sampling points. All the water samples were found to harbor coliforms organisms in numbers greater than the required WHO standards for water except for Enang river that lacked the presence of Vibrio spp. The total viable counts for all the water samples were generally high exceeding the standard limit of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for water. The total heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliform count, faecal coliform count and total fungal count ranged between 1.9x104 - 52x104 cfu/ml, 2.3x104 -38 x104 cfu/ml, 1.7x104 - 30x104 cfu/ml and 2.5x104 - 5.3x104 cfu/ml respectively. The total salmonella-shigella counts and total staphylococcus counts were in the range of 0.2 x102-0.4 x102 cfu/ml and 0.3 x102 -0.6 x104 cfu/ml respectively. From the study, it is suggested that some regulations measures be put in place to control pollution of the water while the water be properly treated before use for domestic, potable or recreational purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Divergence of Cultivable Bacteria Associated with Larvae and Adult Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Laboratory-Reared Strains

Mazarin Akami, Ousman Tamgue, Xueming Ren, Yaohui Wang, Xuewei Qi, Koanga Mogtomo Martin Luther, Rosalie Annie Ngono Ngane, Chang-Ying Niu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630357

Insects entertain intricate and mutualistic relationship with an array of microorganisms, which significantly influence their fitness, ecology and evolution. In recent decades, there has been increasing interest toward studying the effects of microbiome on many host insects (Dipterans, Lepidopterans, and Coleopterans). Studies so far realized indicate that gut microbiome contribute to host nutritional ecology, defense, immunity and lifespan.

Bactrocera dorsalis (Tephritidae: Diptera) is a polyphagous fruit fly which attacks a huge variety of fruits and vegetables worldwide and has been placed as a quarantine species by many countries. To investigate the specific functions of the gut endosymbionts, it is a prerequisite to know the composition of gut bacterial communities whose manipulation will help to decipher their ecological relevance. Here, we used the culture-dependent technique to isolate and identify gut bacteria from B. dorsalis at different developmental stages. The results revealed 11 bacterial species from the third instar larvae, 18 and 12 from female and male populations, respectively. These bacteria were assigned to six families, namely, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, Micrococcaceae and Bacillaceae. Bacterial species from these families were differentially represented in various samples, except Klebsiella oxytoca , Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea dispers and Enterococcus faecalis that were detected at all developmental stages. Overall, Enterobacteriaceae was the most dominant family in females and third instar larvae accounting for 57.89% and 26.32%, respectively, while Enterococcaceae was dominant in males with 75% of the total bacterial taxa. These results suggest that B. dorsalis possesses a huge variety of cultivable bacteria that could be used to explore their specific functions on host physiology and fitness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Exposure Assessment of Fresh and Smoked Pork Meat within Ado-Ekiti Metropolis, Nigeria

P. I. Orjiakor, G. O. Adaran, N. O. Anyanwu, S. O. Otiwa, R. Adams

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630358

The breeding and production environments of pigs tend to be exposed to microbial contaminations and could portend a potential public health hazard if not well managed. This study investigated bacterial and fungal loads of commercial fresh and smoked pork in order to ascertain their wholesomeness. Total aerobic bacterial and fungal count were done on nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar respectively, while antimicrobial susceptibility test to selected commercial antibiotic discs carried out using Disk Diffusion Technique.  All the twenty samples (Fresh and Smoked) cultured yielded bacterial growth with a range of 2.2 - 9.0 × 104 CFU/g (smoked) to 1.0 – 6.3 × 106 CFU/g (fresh). On the other hand, the fungal loads ranges from 1.0 – 6.0 × 102 CFU/g(smoked) to 1.0 -5.0 × 104 CFU/g (fresh). The bacterial isolated and the ratios in fresh and smoked samples wereStaphylococcus aureus (6: 11), Escherichia coli (5: 8), Bacillus cereus (4: 7), Salmonella spp. (2: 3), Proteus spp. (0: 4), Enterobacter spp. (1: 2), Shigella spp. (0:2) and  Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1: 0), while their fungal counterpart included Aspergillus niger (4: 2), Aspergillus terreus (2; 2),Fusarium oxysporum(4: 0), Penicillium spp. (4: 2), Rhizopus spp. (3: 5), Mucor spp. (0: 4); Geotricum candidum (0: 2) and Microsporium spp. (0: 2).  Most of the S.aureus (> 58.8%) and P. aeruginosa (100%), and B. cereus (100%) demonstrated remarkable resistance to the majority of the tested antibiotics. These findings are of public health concern because most of the bacterial and fungal isolates have been implicated in foodborne infections. Hence, there is a need for stricter sanitary measures during the rearing and production to reduce the level of microbial contaminations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Safety and Quality Assessment of Maize (Zea mays L) Produced and Stocked from Rural Conditions in Côte D’ivoire

Kouamé Désiré, Niamketchi Gilles Léonce, Konan Constant, Konan Ysidor, Biego G. Henri Marius

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 60-74
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630360

Aims: Fungal pathogens are one of the main biological agents causing maize post-harvest loss and affect food security in the country. Thus, this study was conducted to assess fungal pathogens associated to post-harvest maize (Zea mays L.) with especial focus to mycotoxin-producing fungi at producer’s storage condition in different regions of Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: A total of 1 500 samples of maize as grains, cobs and husks were collected at rate of 500 samples by region (Gbêkê, Poro, Hambol, Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo) and sent to the laboratory in order to analyse their sanitary quality.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during March 2016 to January 2017. The analyses of the collected sample carried out at the Biotechnology, Agriculture and Valorisation of Biological Resources Laboratory of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny’s University, Abidjan.

Methodology: Microbiological analysis was assessed by recording the number of colony in the plate. The contents of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A in the different samples were determined using standard methods.

Results: The total microbial species isolated ranged from 104 to 1011 cfu/g with thermotolerants coliforms (103 – 104) and fecal coliforms (102 – 103). The stored maize samples contained also high amount of yeast and molds (104 to 107 cfu/g). Aspergillus genus was the predominantly fungal isolated in all maize samples with tree species which are A. flavus, A. niger and A. versicolor potential producers of mycotoxins. More importantly, stored maize sample as grain, cobs and husks were affected by aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and ochratoxin A. Sixty per cent of the maize samples, mostly husks, showed aflatoxin B1 (from 12.73 to 130.31 µg/kg) and OTA (from 16.75 to 134.21 µg/kg) concentrations above the Maximum Authorized Limit of 5 µg/kg.

Conclusion: A significant variability from one region to another can be noticed at level of maize quality regardless the type of maize. The sanitary quality of maize seems to be tied to postharvest treatments (drying), type of storage (grains, cobs and husks) and structure of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk Factors among Children in a Community, North Central Nigeria

James A. Ndako, Stephen K. S. Ojo, Victor O. Fajobi, Jeremiah A. Akinwumi, Victor T. Dojumo, Akinyomade O. Owolabi, Ilochi C. Ifeanyichukwu, Obinna O. Nwankiti

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630362

Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a worldwide health issue and a source of major concern around the globe. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus pose a major challenge to public health. This study evaluates the prevalence and transmission rate of Hepatitis B Virus infection among children of primary school age at our study location.

Method: Three hundred and three (303) volunteer subjects were screened.Structured questionnaire were administered to consenting participants to determine demographic and other risk factors for HBV infection.Samples obtained were analysed using a Laboratory-based immunoassay-HBsAg rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) in lateral flow assays formats. Sera samples obtained were stored at -20oc prior use.

Results: Overall result showed that 46 (15.2%) were sero-positive for HBV infection. Considering age factor, Children aged 10 – 12 years showed a higher prevalence of 16(5.3%) [P-value 0.736; (P >0.05)]. Based on gender of subjects screened, a prevalence of 34(11.2%) was recorded among the males subjects compared to females with 12(4.0%) positivity, [(P < 0.05)]. Risk factors on family history recorded 13(4.3%) positivity, considering place of circumcision as risk factors among male subjects; result showed that subjects circumcised using traditional methods   recorded 17 (11.7%) positivity. [P-value 0.856 (P>0.05)].Respondents with history of cuts recorded a prevalence of 29(9.6%) positivity; [P-Value 0.362 (P>0.05)] considering enzyme assay of positive subjects, 13 (4.3%) subjects recorded an elevated Alanine transaminases.

Conclusion: The transmission rate of HBV infection among the family members was found to be high in this study. This upsurge calls for an urgent vaccination of the population by relevant healthcare providers.

Open Access Review Article

Brief Study of the Immune System and A Large Sea of Pathogens and Other things Side A

Valdecir de Godoy Borges

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630354

And I will destroy any man who dares to abuse my trust, I promise that you will be mine (Queen 1973) We begin and brief study with this song to illustrate in a simple and interesting way because aimunology itself is something extremely interesting the flagship the captain this boat will be the book cell and molecular immunology by Abul K Abbas, Andrew H. Liichtman and Shiv Pllai we will start from a hypothetical situation of a region injured by a piercing instrument that penetrates the skin layers and skeletal muscle tissues based on this arrangement as we will discuss in this case DAMPs Molecular Patterns Associated with Damages and PAMPs molecular patterns associated with pathogens in this part of the study we stick to pathogens linked to amino acids and their formation in chains of proteins TH1 and TH2 that would be mechanisms of intracellular aggressions such as viruses and microbacteria and mechanisms that attack ectracellular cells like bacteria in the hypotonic situation ethics that we comment on an instrument any sharp drill when the layers of the cells the phosphopipidic layers are injured and all extracellular content moves to the extracellular medium begins with a response called innate or cellular that is given by immune cells intact as macrophages dendritic cells are very important in the presentation of phagocyte antigens also obviously to a perception of the central nervous system pain and a conscious state  this information reaches the cerebral cortex pain and is detected by nociceptors in response the central nervous system releases substance P in this initiation of injury the cells begins an inflammatory process and the damaged cell members these phospholipids generate the cascade of arachidonic acid in this process if this injury is resolved everything is solved with the first phase of defense which is the innate or cellular system in case of intra or intra pathogens extracellular remains and start m a process of aggression to the organism starts the second part of the defense that is acquired that has specific responses for extracellular and intra cellular pathogenic organisms the complementary immune system we did not address in this work this article is dedicated to my esteemed professors of the medical school São Judas Tadeu Cubatão

Open Access Review Article

Review on SARS- CoV-2 Transmission, Infection and Pathogenesis in Animals

Nwiyi Paul Okechukwu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i630359

Coronavirus are single stranded, positive sense, enveloped virus that belongs to the order Nidovirales. Coronavirus consists of pathogens of many animal species and humans including the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV). This review considers the transmission, pathogenesis and diagnosis of coronavirus in animal.  Transmission of coronavirus is by inhalation of aerosol or droplets containing the virus via respiratory system and close contact with infected patients. Clinical signs exhibited by coronavirus infected animals are; coughing, sneezing, diarrhea, fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Coronavirus pathogenesis involves viral attachment or entry, replication, transcription, translation, assembly and eventual release. Polymerase chain reaction is the most modern and acceptable method for coronavirus detection because of its sensitivity and accuracy, though, several other methods abound. The PCR amplifies a specific region of a DNA strand; employs thermal cycling and the main agents are primers and a DNA polymerase.  The process of denaturation, annealing and elongation constitutes a single cycle. Multiple cycles are required to amplifiy the target DNA to millions of copies.