Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Fungal Plant Pathogens by Aqueous Extracts of Arum cyreniacum

Ahmed A. Abdulrraziq, Sami M. Salih, Sultan F. Alnomasy, Ziyad M. Aldosari, Bader S. Alotaibi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730363

Arum cyreniacum is an important member of the family of Araceae because of its bio-activities. Hence this work aimed to establish a link between Arum cyreniacum and its uses as bio-control against plant pathogenic fungi which had never hitherto been established. This work was carried out to evaluate the activity of the aqueous extracts of tubers, leaves, and flowers of Arum cyreniacum against three different types of pathogenic fungi, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus microspores and Aspergillus niger. The antifungal activity of the aqueous extracts of Arum cyreniacum was determined by poisoned food technique. The results showed that Arum cyreniacum had an inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner on Fusarium solani, Rhizopus microspores, while Aspergillus niger was resistant to all extracts. However, the great inhibition activity against tested fungi was associated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extracts of Arum cyreniacum. Data in this work indicated that the use of Arum cyreniacum could be a valid alternative for bio-control of plant pathogenic fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-contaminated Soil Using HBB5 Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas xiamenensis

I. L. Nkwocha, L. O. Odokuma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730364

Biodegradation of benzene toluene ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a slow and complex process. However, many microbial organisms have been shown to possess the capacity to biodegrade various components of a hydrocarbon. This study was aimed at investigating the role of biosurfactant on soil polluted with these monoaromatics. Samples were collected and analyzed using standard techniques. The biodegradation set up was carried out using five earthen pots; each containing unpolluted soil, polluted soil alone, polluted soil + poultry wastes, polluted soil + HBB5 biosurfactant and polluted soil + poultry wastes + HBB5 biosurfactant. The biodegradation of BTEX were periodically monitored every seven days for 28 days using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer coupled with head space (GC-MS-HS). The respective initial and final concentrations of BTEX (ppm) were as follows; 0.7936 and 0.2063, 0.9733 and 0.0231, 0.9526 and <0.0001, 0.9241 and <0.0001 with degradation efficiencies of 74.0%, 97.6%, 100% and 100% for polluted soil alone, polluted soil + poultry wastes, polluted soil + HBB5 biosurfactant and polluted soil + poultry wastes + HBB5 biosurfactant respectively. The microbial counts increased greatly, and the concentrations of the limiting nutrients reduced during the experimental period. The effective treatments for bioremediation increased in the following order: polluted soil alone < polluted soil + poultry waste < polluted soil + HBB5 biosurfactant < polluted soil + poultry waste + HBB5 biosurfactant. Results clearly showed that application of HBB5 biosurfactant only or in combination with poultry wastes has the ability to degrade ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) and thus, can be employed in the clean-up of crude oil contaminated soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Potential and Microbiological Quality of the Taro Leaves (Colocasia Esculenta) Consumed in Abidjan City (Côte d’Ivoire)

Kouamé Kohi Alfred, Bouatenin Koffi Maïzan Jean-Paul, Djué Yao Fabrice, Coulibaly Karnon, Djé Koffi Marcellin

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730365

To fight malnutrition, which is a public health problem in the world, it is to use local foods as a cost-effective strategy to improve health. The aim of this study was to characterize taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves for their valorization in human food. Sampling took place in the city of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and the collection of fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf samples was done in 10 fields in the commune of Abobo, 6 fields in Akeikoi and 4 fields in N'dotré, in October 2020. Three samples were taken in each field. To do so, physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological analyses of dried fresh leaves and dried cooked leaves were performed. The analysis of the biochemical composition allowed to characterize the taro leaves. Thus, the results showed that the crude protein and fat contents of the fresh dried taro leaves were respectively 4.95 ± 0.005% and 0.07 ± 0.001% against 3.75 ± 0.001% and 0.06 ± 0.001% for the boiled and dried taro leaves. The total carbohydrate content was 93.97± 0.02% for the dried cooked leaves and 91.24 ± 0.04% for the fresh dried leaves. The iron concentration for the dried fresh leaves (3.33 ± 0.57 mg) was higher than that for the boiled and dried leaves (1.33 ± 0.57 mg). Zinc content ranged from 385.66 ± 5.13 mg for fresh dried leaves to 196.66 ± 5.77 mg for boiled and dried taro leaves. Magnesium was present in taro leaves with higher contents in fresh dried leaves (45.66 ± 1.52 mg) than in cooked dried leaves (38.66 ± 1.52 mg). In addition, the presence of mesophilic aerobic germs, notably Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sporulates, was observed in the dried cooked leaves. It appears that the cooked taro leaves consumed in Abidjan have a good nutritional potential but could present a health hazard at the microbiological level for the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric and Genomic Characterization of Toxigenic Aspergillus Isolates Associated with Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Five Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Akinmusire, Olubamise Oyekemi, Omomowo Israel Olawale

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730366

Introduction: Toxigenic aspergilli are storage contaminants of poultry feeds and feed ingredients which produce secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins in these products. This research is aimed at detecting and characterizing mycotoxin producing aspergillus species present in feeds given to poultry birds and in the ingredients used in the production of these feeds.

Method: A total of 102 samples of feed (n=30) and feed ingredients (n=72) were collected across 5 agro-ecological zones of Nigeria and analyzed for toxigenic Aspergilli using morphometric and molecular genomic characterization techniques. Different mycological media was used for isolation, by deploying pour plate method. The Aspergilli isolates morphometric identity were characterized using macroscopic and microscopic observed features. The isolated Aspergillus species were further characterized molecularly using genomic characterization protocols.

Results: The results of the morphometric characterization indicated that nine (9) Aspergillus species were detected in the feed and feed ingredients, with Aspergillus flavus having the highest rate of occurrence among the isolates. Furthermore, the genomic typing using internal transcribe spacer (ITS) as a barcode, as well as comparison of the fungal isolates with other Aspergillus species in the genebank showed 99-100% similarity. Also, toxigenic gene typing indicated that some of the A. flavus were toxigenic with the detection of the following genes Nor-1, ver-1, OmtB and AflR.

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that toxigenic Aspergilli isolates are present in both poultry feed and feed ingredients from 5 agro-ecological zones in Nigeria and poses great public health issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Contaminants on Inanimate Surfaces and Non-critical Instruments at a Major Reference Hospital in Makurdi, Nigeria

A. K. Akpenpuun, I. W. Nyinoh

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730367

Aims: There have been links between healthcare-acquired infections, contaminated surfaces, and medical instruments. The aim of this study was to: (i) investigate the variety of microorganisms that persist on inanimate/noncritical devices at Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi, Nigeria, as a possible source of healthcare-acquired bacterial and fungal infections, and (ii) determine the prevalence of microorganisms on the instruments sampled.

Study design: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study.

Place and duration of study: Microbiology Laboratory (Bacteriology, Media/Washroom, Serology, and Phlebotomy Units), Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi, Nigeria, between January 2021 and May 2021.

Methodology: Swab specimens were collected from  tables (14), sinks (8), hand jars (7), scissors (5), inoculating loops (7), refrigerators (6), and autoclaves (3) using sterile stick swabs. The bacterial and fungal investigation was performed using standard culture tests-gram stain, colony morphology, and biochemical tests.

Results: All the samples tested positive for either bacteria or fungi, indicating a contamination rate of 100%. Tables were the most contaminated (28%), sinks (16%), inoculating loops (14%), hand jars (14%), refrigerators (12%), scissors (10%), and autoclaves (6%). Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and the fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were identified.

Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that hospital surfaces and healthcare-associated equipment is a potential source of nosocomial infections for patients, visitors, and health care workers. Hospitals should enforce regular cleaning and decontamination to forestall the occurrence of nosocomial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Activities of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on Selected Strains of Microorganisms

A. A. Oladejo, H. A. Ogbunugafor, C. S. Okafor, E. A. Kyrian-Ogbonna, L. C. Chidi-Onuorah

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730368

Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. (Crassulaceae) called ‘Oda-opue’ in Igbo, ‘Eru-odundunin Yoruba and ‘Abomoda’ in Hausa languages are widely used as food and as medicines in traditional medical practice. They are found widely in tropical Africa, America, India and China. This study investigates the inhibitory activities of hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of B. Pinnatum against some strains of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Basillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Penicillum marneffei) using standard inoculate method. Results showed that hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of B. pinnatum exhibited a considerable antimicrobial activity at the lowest concentration (15.625 mg/ml). The results in the findings showed that the leaf of B. pinnatum has high inhibitory activities against pathogenic organisms and could be employed to formulate new plant-based drug to improve human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Port Harcourt

F. O. Ibeh, S. A. Wemedo, N. P. Akani

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 61-74
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730369

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vancomycin resistance among Enterococcal species isolated from clinical specimens of patients attending two hospitals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Study Design: The study employs statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Two hospitals which are Meridian hospital Port Harcourt and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, located in the city of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State were used for this study. Specimen collection lasted for 3 weeks and the analysis was carried out daily and it lasted for six months.

Methodology: A total of one hundred and eighteen (118) urine and stool specimens (60 urine and 58 stool specimens) were collected from Fifty nine (59) patients for a period of three months from Meridian hospital and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. The specimens collected were grouped inpatients and outpatients and were subjected to standard microbiological procedures which include standard plate counts, identification, and sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, Minimum inhibitory concentration and molecular identification of the isolates.

Results: A total of 48 enterococcal isolates were isolated from the different specimens (hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients) of urine and stool specimens. All Enterococcal isolates showed high level of resistance to Ceftazidime and Cefuroxime (100%) followed by cloxacillin (95.8%), augumentin (85.4%) and Ceftriaxone (75.0%). The isolates showed higher sensitive rates to Ofloxacin (95.5%), followed by Gentamicin (77.1%) and Vancomycin (39.6%). All Enterococal isolates from this study had a MAR index > 0.2. A total of the 48 Enterococci were isolated, the 23 (47.9%) isolates were identified as vancomyin resistant during this study were subjected to MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) for vancomycin as a confirmatory test. Of the 23 isolates, 12 isolates were vancomycin resistant with 11 isolates showing vancomycin MIC values of 8-16μg /ml (vancomycin intermediate).

Conclusion: Conclusively, this study revealed varying Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria. Treatment guidelines for use of antibiotics should be based on the hospital formulary and the sensitivity patterns is advocated. This should be reviewed occasionally to ensure rational use of antibiotics

Open Access Original Research Article

Water-related Diseases in the Adamawa Region, Cameroon: A Prospective and Retrospective Case Study and the Susceptibility of Isolated Bacteria to Common Antibiotics

Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Beatrice Gingir, Steve Francky Sohanang Nodem, Fadimatou Mouni Yaou, Tepongning Nzangue Roselyne, Binjamen Tangue Talom, Gatsing Donatien

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i730370

Water related disease is defined as any significant or widespread adverse effects on human health, such as death, disability, illness or disorders, caused directly or indirectly by the condition, or changes in the quantity or quality of any water. This crossectional and analytical study, carried out from July to December 2019 at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital and Protestant Hospital aimed to determine the prevalence of water related diseases in the Vina Division. Retrospective data of patients records covered the period of five years (2014 to 2018) were analyzed in order to identify common water related diseases in the study area. Document review technique was adopted in this study; outpatients/inpatients registers were reviewed and information on socio-demographic characteristics of each individual patient were collected. Also, the bacteriological characterization of stool samples collected from patients was done to identify the most frequent bacteria responsible for water related disease in the area, followed by an antibacterial susceptibility testing of some isolated bacteria using standard methods. Results show that, out of 153073 patients recorded from 2014 to 2019, 63750 were clinically diagnosed for water related diseases, giving a prevalence of 41%.  Overall, typhoid fever and malaria were the most prevailing water related diseases confirmed clinically with a prevalence of 43%. Parasitic infections were the least prevailing (3.7%). The study revealed that, females was more prone to water related cases than males. Bacteria were more sensitive to streptomycin and resistant to amoxicillin. This study shows that water related diseases are a major health problem in the Vina Division. Routinely monitoring of drinking water sources is recommended to the different users in order to limit the spread of water related diseases.