Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among HIV Positive Patients in Some Hospitals in Rivers State

M. A. Erasmus, N. P. Akani, L. O. Amadi, J. O. Williams

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830371

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are all blood borne pathogens that are still global health challenges and were known to be endemic in Nigeria. Little work had been done on Hepatitis-B and C co-infection among HIV positive patients in the three Senatorial Districts of Rivers State. A case- control, hospital- based study was conducted among subjects from Rivers state University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Zonal Hospital, Bori and Zonal Hospital, Ahoada to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C co-infection in these areas. Three hundred and seventy-five subjects of (10-69 years) and both sexes were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic parameters of the participants. The samples collected were screened and confirmed for hepatitis-B and C using standard techniques. The overall prevalence rates of HBV, HCV and HBV/HCV in this study are 4.5%, 2.1% and 0.8% respectively while the prevalence among HIV positive participants were; 4.6%, 2.8% and 1.1% respectively. Bori had the highest prevalence of HBV and HCV, (5.3% and 4.2%) while Ahoada had the highest prevalence of triple infection (2.1%). The prevalence of HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV infection was more among subjects within age range of 30-39 years (7.0%, 5.6% and 4.2%) and lowest within the age range of 20-29 years (2.3%, 0% and 0%). Conclusively, the research findings show that the prevalence of hepatitis B and C co-infection among HIV patients in these hospitals are high. Thus, every HIV positive patient should be screened and educated on the danger of co-infection for better management of the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Chicken Slaughtered in Creek Road Market, Port Harcourt

Elele Kingsley, Adedokun Ambali Amudatu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830372

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the gastrointestinal parasites among slaughtered Chicken at Yam Zone Market, Creek Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Gastrointestinal tracts of slaughtered chicken were collected weekly from a vendor. Each part of the GIT was emptied into separate vessel containing normal saline.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in a chicken market in Port Harcourt, Nigeria for a period of 4 months (January-April 2020).

Methodology:  A total of 100 chickens (comprising of broilers and layers) of which samples were collected from their gastrointestinal tracts were examined using formol-ether concentration methods for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites.

Results: Eighty-four (84) parts of the gastrointestinal tracts accounted for 14.0% found to be infected with parasites. The gastrointestinal protozoan isolated is Eimeria spp (52.4%) while helminths species found were, Ascaridia galli (47.6%). There were no cestodes and trematodes identified.

Conclusion: Poultry management system needs to be improved with a viable biosecurity control strategy towards healthy production of livestock chickens for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Profile of Fermented Maize Flour (Ogi) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Seeds

V. O. Itaman, E. Nwachukwu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 16-27
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830373

This study assessed the microbial and physicochemical properties of fermented maize flour (Ogi) and Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds (Ugba). The microbial analyses were done based on microbiological standards. The samples were monitored at points of preparation from 0 to 96 hours of fermentation. The physicochemical parameters were performed in accordance to standard procedures. Selected dilutions were inoculated by pour-plate method on appropriate media for isolation of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococci, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and fungi. Molecular identification of the LAB were done using 16s rRNA Sanger sequencing method. The pH decreased steadily from 3.9 to 3.3 for Ogi and from 7.7 to 5.8 for Ugba, with a corresponding increase in titratable acidity from 1.3 to 2.5 for Ogi and from 0.6 ± 0.14ef to 1.2 ± 0.28c for Ugba. Microorganisms isolated from fermented maize flour (Ogi) and ‘Ugba’ were; Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli, Bacillus species, Micrococus species, Pseudomonas species, Proteus species, Saccharomyces species, Aspergillus species and Candida species. The total bacteria counts showed decrease in both samples, with Ugba having the highest bacteria count (2.7×106±12.00a cfu/g which decreased to 1.0×106 ± 2.00f cfu/g) compared to Ogi with values (1.3×106 ± 3.00c cfu/g to 1.6 ×105± 1.73h  cfu/g) from 0 hour to 96 hours of the fermentation period. Fungi counts increased in both samples throughout the fermentation period with Ugba having counts of (1.4 ×103± 2.65i to 2.8 ×104 ± 5.00 a cfu/g), and Ogi (7.7 ×103± 1.53 h to 2.7 ×104± 6.00 b cfu/g). LAB were persistent and most predominant in Ogi while Bacillus species were most predominant in Ugba. The variations in their different levels of values were of significant difference (P ≤ 0.05). This study revealed the distribution of fermentative microorganisms and few contaminants which were not directly associated with fermentation process and that can however, be further reduced through heat preparation treatment of Ogi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Examination of Used Towels from Female and Male Hostel of Federal University of Lafia

Naja’atu Shehu Hadi, UYI, Gerard Osuyi, Sani Bashir, Fatima Al-Mustapha Yusuf, Kabiru Abdullahi Shuaibu, Sunday Otunsha Obiokpa

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830374

Bath towels have the ability to retain microbes, moist and warm environment offers microbes a favorable place to grow and survive. These microbes can be transmitted through direct contact with our hands and other inanimate objects within the environment. This study aimed at examining bacterial contamination of used towels. Used towels from male and female hostels at Federal University of Lafia, were assessed to determine their bacterial concentration. A total of sixteen (16) used towels were sampled, eight towels each from female and male hostels were sampled between April and May 2021. Identification and characterization of bacterial isolates was carried out using standard cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Micrococcus spp, Serratia sp and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus were identified as contaminants in the towel samples analyzed. The female towels assessed in this study had the highest number of colonies with 4.39 x 109, while the male towels had the least number of colonies 3.88 x 109. Male and female towels sampled were all contaminated, but with no significant difference in the contamination rates (p>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most prevalent organisms isolated from male (62.5%; 5/8) and female (100%; 8/8) towels respectively. The high prevalence of diverse bacterial species is worrisome considering the epidemiology and clinical importance of the isolates, compounded by antimicrobial resistance and high mortality rate. Hence, there is need to enforce and improve hygiene practice among students. Frequent washing of towels and use of medicated soaps and disinfectants in bathing and washing water is hereby canvassed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Microbial Load and pH of Pap Produced from Selected Cereals

Ifeoma Uche Ude, Mohammed Aisha, Uche Okechukwu Ibe, U. G. Ekeleme

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 50-54
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830376

The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbial load of pap samples made from three commonly utilized cereal grains namely: maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) and guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor). Exactly 2 kg each of the aforementioned grains was steeped in 1000 ml of clean water for 3 days at 30±20C temperature. The water was disposed and the cereal grain separately washed thoroughly using clean water. The grains were then wet milled and the resulting paste mixed with1000 ml of clean water. The slurry was filtered with the aid of the muslin cloth. The filtrate was then allowed to stand for a period of 24 hours and the supernatant disposed. Microbiological analysis to determine microbial load on the various samples were carried using standard procedures. Guinea corn based pap had the highest lactic acid bacteria count of 9×103 CFU/g at 0 hr of fermentation which decreased to 6.6×105 CFU/g at the 72nd hr.  On the other hand, the composite of the three cereals had the lactic acid bacteria count of 4.2×104 CFU/g at 0 hr of fermentation which increased to 8.6×105 CFU/g at the 72nd hr, the highest value recorded for all samples studied. Total coliform count on all samples maintained a uniform trend of increase at the 24th and 48th hr and a decrease at the 72nd hr. Millet based pap had the highest fungi count of 2.3×101CFU/g at 0hr of fermentation which increased progressively to 4.9×101 at the 72nd hr. However, pap derived from the composite of the cereals presented the lowest fungi count of 0.52×102   at 0hr which however increased progressively to record the highest count of 1.4×101at the 72nd hr. In conclusion, there is need to optimize the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the production of pap, this may enhance its acid production potential and consequent inhibition and/destruction of potential harmful microorganisms in fermented foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Five-year Review of Puerperal Sepsis and Its Complications at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, South-South Nigeria

P. C. Oriji, D. O. Allagoa, C. Ikoro, O. I. Oguche, V. K. Oriji, C. E. Unachukwu, A. E. Ubom, G. Atemie

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830377

Background: Puerperal sepsis is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. It complicates 1% – 8% of all deliveries, and is responsible for 15% of maternal deaths.

Objective: To determine the incidence of puerperal sepsis, and its associated complications at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, over a five-year period.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective survey was carried out between 1st January, 2016, and 31st December, 2020. Data were retrieved, entered into a pre-designed proforma, and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Results were presented in frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables.

Results: A total of 66 women were managed for puerperal sepsis out of 4,571 obstetric patients seen in the five-year period under review. Most women were unbooked (81.8%), and were delivered at home/unorthodox faith-based delivery units by traditional birth attendants (75.8%). Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were cultured in 54.8%, 12.9% and 12.9% of cases, respectively. There was no maternal mortality.

Conclusion: Puerperal sepsis remains an important public health problem in developing countries. While encouraging antenatal care and supervised hospital delivery is important for its primary prevention, early diagnosis, prompt and effective antibiotic and supportive therapy will prevent its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Microorganisms Associated with Crude Oil Impacted Surface Water Body in Bodo/Bonny River, Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Lucky B. Kpormon, Matthew E. Origbe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 64-79
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830378

The contamination of water is a serious environmental problem as it adversely affects the human health and the biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems. The organisms that inhabit the water space use oxygen for metabolic activities and the blocking of the water surface of the river by total petroleum hydrocarbons tend to reduce the dissolved oxygen available within the system thereby making the survival of aquatic life difficult particularly the non-hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of water samples from Bodo/Bonny River impacted by crude oil spill. Water and dead fish samples were collected from four stations while the fifth sample was collected from a link fish pond which served as control.  Microbiological analysis of samples collected was analysed accordingly using standard analytical methods.  Bacterial isolates from the sampling stations show that Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sp, Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp, Salmonella sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Actinomycetes, Clostridium, Listeria sp, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas sp and fungal isolates namely,  Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus, Mucor sp and Candida sp were identified. Percentage occurrence of both isolates show that E. coli 15%, Vibrio species 13%, Pseudomonas 12%, Klebsiella 12% and Shigella 9% while Aspergillus niger had 37.18%, while Mucor had 25.64%, Penicillium sp 11.38%, Aspergillus flavus 11.38% and Candida sp 10.26%.Microorganisms isolated from the river water that survived the harsh influences associated with oil spill from this study shows that most of the microorganisms could be genetically cloned as hydrocarbon utilizing organisms for cleanup of oil contaminated environments because of their existence and sustenance to mankind.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Mycorrhizae and Related Endophytic Fungi as Potential Sources of Enzymes for the Bio-Economy

O. R. Adeoyo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 35-49
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i830375

Ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi and related fungal root endophytes do form symbiotic associations with roots of ericaceous plants. These groups of fungi can have profound impact on community of plants in soil environment. Studies conducted on Hymenoscyphus ericae revealed that H. ericae can produce extracellular enzymes such as phosphatases, proteases, cellulases and pectinases, which support the utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and permitting access to other valuable nutrient embedded within the soil and decaying plant tissues. Most studies conducted on extracellular enzymes from these fungi majorly focused on the use of plating method to determine activity. Currently, there is little information on extracellular enzymes from ERM for the bio-economy, but there are proofs that some ericoid, ectomycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi have the potential to produce a good number of hydrolytic enzymes in vitro. Therefore, this review seeks to employ available information on these fungi and their ability to produce enzymes when growing in liquid medium where their production can be optimized for commercial purposes.