Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Unfermented Palm Sap Reserved for Infant Feeding

Voko Bi Rosin Don Rodrigue, Assohoun-Djeni Nanouman Marina Christell, Coulibaly Bakary, Kouassi Kouassi Clément

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130397

Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological parameters that could contribute to the depreciation of the quality of unfermented palm sap used for infant feeding.

Study Design: A survey was conducted in 20 villages and camps to determine if the practice was still current. Also, unfermented sap was produced from 5 palms by resource persons to control the quality during the days of exploitation.

Place and Duration of Study: The survey was carried out from March 1st to 30th in villages and camps in Central and Central-Western Cote d'Ivoire. The production of the sap took place during one week in the village of Akpessekro.

Methodology: 30 people, without distinction randomly crossed were questioned on the food consumed at the age of 0 to 6 months. Also, in the unfermented sap produced acidity, sugar content, loads of GAM, thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, yeasts and molds were determined and multiple correlations were established between all parameters.

Results: In the villages and camps, palm sap is less and less used as infant food. During the first two days of palm farming, the acidity (6 < pH < 6.11) approximates that of breast milk or milk substitutes. However, after these two days, the acidity becomes high and the sugar content too low for infant feeding. In the unfermented sap, the loads of coliform fecal contamination germs are higher than the required standards. Also, the large load of lactic acid bacteria (≥1.5E+04 ufc/ml) and yeasts (1.4E+04 ufc/ml) present in the sap contribute to a depreciation of its quality over the days and when the sap is left to rest.

Conclusion: The quality of unfermented palm sap as infant food is not guaranteed. This is one of the reasons why this practice is in decline nowadays.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of the Biomass of a Macromycete Fungus for the Bioremediation of Chromium (VI) in Solution

Ismael Acosta Rodríguez, Erika Enriquez Domínguez, Adriana Rodríguez Pérez, Juan Fernando Cárdenas González, Víctor Manuel Martínez Juárez, Juana Tovar Oviedo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 15-27
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130398

Recently, the removal capacity of different heavy metals from sites contaminated by low-cost materials has been studied, with promising results. These adsorbents include dead microorganisms, clay minerals, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and other materials. The objective of this work was studying the removal capacity of Cr (VI) by a commercial mushroom, the macromycete Agaricus bisporus (white strain), by the Diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method It was found that the biomass removal 100 mg/L of the metal at 21 minutes, pH 1.0, 28oC, and 100 rpm. On the other hand, if the concentration of the metal is increased, the removal capacity for the analyzed biomass decreases at 28oC. 200 mg/L are removal at 60 minutes, while with 1 g/L of the metal, its removal 90.3%. If the concentration of the bioadsorbent is increased, the removal of the metal also increases, and the presence of other heavy metals does not influence in the removal of the metal, and this was desorbed 70.4%, with NaOH 0.5 N. Finally, it was observing that after 7 days of incubation, 76.2%, and 66.1%, of Cr (VI) present in naturally contaminated earth and water, were removal, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Playing a Lead Role in the Fermentation of Cocoa in Fako Division of Cameroon

Lewis D. Levai, Rauwitta O. Afoh, Yannick Tah, Ekwa Y. Monono, Lewis Enow, Fossi B. Tatsinkou, Jane-Francis K. Akoachere, Vincent P. K. Titanji

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 28-41
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130399

Heaps of cocoa beans and mucilage placed within plantain leaves in Ekona, Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon was studied to isolate and identify bacteria playing a lead role during natural fermentation process. All experiments were performed at JP Johnson Biotechnology Laboratory at IRAD Ekona, Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon between March – October, 2020. Heaps of 10kg were placed on and covered with plantain leaves and allowed to ferment naturally. Before every sample was collected the temperature and pH were measured. Samples were inoculated into de Mann Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar and Caar agar for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) respectively. Standard microbiological procedures for obtaining bacteria counts and isolation of pure cultures were performed and isolated bacteria were identified following morphological and phenotypic characterization on API50CHL for LAB and Enrichment Media for AAB. The fermentation temperature rose to 45oC after 4 days while the pH fluctuated with a peak at 4.82 after 108 hours. Maximum counts of Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) (5.8x108 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/ mL) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) (8.9x8x108 (CFU)/mL were obtained at 2 days and 5 days respectively. Twelve isolates each of AAB and LAB were identified on growth media. After phenotypic characterization, 03 Lactobacillus species and 02 Acetobacter species were identified. The most abundant bacteria were L. plantarum (41.77%) and Acetobacter tropicalis (24.11%) on MRS agar and Caar Agar respectively.
L. plantarum and A. tropicalis have been identified as the bacteria playing a lead role in the fermentation of cocoa in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. These organisms may be used as good candidates in a consortium for use as a starter culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Molecular Characterizations of Strains of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maulk, Pathogen Associated with Black Rot Cocoa Pods in the Tshopo Province, Kisangani Region (DR Congo)

K. Limba, K. Kwembe, K. Asumani, T. K. Monde, G. Hassaert, H. Akwakwa, O. Onautshu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130400

The cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L) is a persistent perennial crop in tropical regions whose production period is sufficiently spread out over the whole year.  As a result, it offers pathogens conditions for survival without real disruption of their life cycle.  Symptoms of cocoa pod black rot disease have been observed in both the Bengamisa cocoa growing area and the Yangambi area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

This study aimed to characterize the strains of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on cocoa trees in the Kisangani region.

 Macroscopic and microscopic observations were made on the pods while the identification of the species was confirmed by a molecular approach based on the sequencing of part of the ribosomal DNA including the ITS regions (internal transcribed spacers) and the 5.8S gene.

 The results of this study showed that the phenotypic characteristics of the strains isolated in the two cocoa growing areas were typical of the L. Theobromae species. These are in particular the spots of soft rot, initially brown, gradually evolving into soot-black which subsequently produced a sort of whitish powder on the surface of the diseased pod.  However, the fruiting of the fungus in the PDA medium gave rise to the latter's mycelia, initially whitish, which darkened as they matured.  In addition, PCR amplification followed by sequencing of the fungal strain was beneficial by removing any doubt about the nature of the fungal species isolated in the two cocoa-growing areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteria Colonization of Fresh Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables from Markets in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria

Chinenye Nnenna Ugwu, Thaddeus Harrison Gugu, Ezinwanne Nneoma Ezeibe, Chinekwu Sherridan Nwagwu, Paul Achile Akpa, Anthony Amechi Attama

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 51-64
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130401

Consumers’ demand for minimally processed fresh minimally fruits and vegetables owing to their reputation of being convenient, fresh, nutritive, healthy, and cheap has been on the increase over the years. Contamination of these commodities during processing has been reported and vendors often ignore proper hygienic processes. However, since fresh produce is often consumed raw, these products could harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria. In this study, 15 randomly selected samples of fresh, minimally processed watermelon, cucumber and garden egg were collected from markets in southeastern Nigeria and evaluated by way of standard plate techniques of serial dilution for bacterial contaminants. Following standard bacteriological practices, dilutions were plated on suitable growth media and incubated for 48 h. Pure cultures of bacterial isolates were investigated for total viable counts and identified both macroscopically and microscopically via Gram staining technique, spore staining technique, motility test and biochemical analysis. Fifty-eight isolates were obtained and the total viable plate count from all samples ranged from 1.0×106-8.0×106 CFU/g with watermelon samples recording the highest volume of bacteria loads. The cultural and biochemical characterization revealed the presence of seventeen (17) probable species of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (40%), Bacillus sp.(21%), Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium sp., and Citrobacter sp. (17%), Lactobacillus sp., and Proteus sp.(12%), Yersinia sp., Serratia marcescens, Listeria sp. and Pseudomonas sp.(6%),  Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sp. (5%), and Salmonella sp. (2%). Probable pathogenic bacteria exceeded the standard limit thus requiring urgent public sensitization and education by appropriate regulatory agencies. Therefore, the consumption of these minimally processed fruits and vegetables couldlead to foodborne infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effect of Nymphaea lotus (Linn) Extracts on Enteric Bacteria Isolated from River Ogbese, Nigeria

O. J. Adenola, A. O. Olalemi, A. O. Ogundare

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 65-87
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130402

The increase in multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria and decrease in efficiency of existing antibiotics is a serious global health concern which call for development of new alternative medicine and continuous research for new classes of antimicrobial agents that can be effective in destroying these multidrug resistant pathogens without or with minimal side effect and at an affordable cost. N. lotus has been reported to possess some amount of phytochemicals such as phenols, tannins, saponins, steroids, proanthocyanidins and flavanols which may serve as an effective antimicrobial agent. This study was aimed at determining the antibacterial effect of Nymphaea lotus (Linn) extracts on enteric bacteria isolated from River Ogbese, Nigeria. Water samples were collected every week for a period of sixteen (16) weeks aseptically and transported to the laboratory for microbiological and physicochemical examinations; enteric bacteria were isolated from the water samples using membrane filtration method. Bioactive components of N. lotus were extracted using Ethanol, water and N-Hexane solvents. In-vitro antibacterial effect of N. lotus extracts was assayed using agar well diffusion technique. Results showed Shigella and faecal coliforms had the highest occurrence in the water samples at (30.19%) followed by Salmonella (20.76%) and Escherichia coli (18.87%). Physicochemical characteristics of water samples from River Ogbese showed that water temperature ranged from 22.00 to 28.10 ℃, turbidity ranged from 2.00 to 33.80 NTU and phosphate ranged from 5.45 to 68.57 mg/L respectively. Whilst the isolates had the highest total percentage resistance to Augmentin at 20.03 %, ethanol extract of N. lotus exhibited the highest mean zone of inhibition of 24.67±0.67 mm against the isolates at 100 mg/mL respectively. The findings from this study suggest N. lotus extracts to be effective in the treatment of enteric infections that may occur as a result of consumption or contact with faecal impacted water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality in Some Hydrocarbon-imparted Ogoni Communities in River State, Nigeria

Caroline Barituka Ganabel, Confidence Kinikanwo Wachukwu, Samuel Douglas Abbey, Easter Godwin Nwokah

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 88-97
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130403

Aim: This study aimed to assess the quality of drinking water in some hydrocarbon-impacted Ogoni communities.

Study Design: The study employ a cross-sectional and analytical design using stratified sampling method.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Science of Rivers State University, Giolee Global Resource Limited and Environmental Consultancy Services between March 2020 and March 2021.

Methodology: Water samples were collected from (20 hydrocarbon- impacted communities) in the 4 Local Government Area (LGAs) of Ogoni land. These water samples were analyzed to determine the physicochemical, bacteriological, heavy metal and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) parameters using standard methods and operational procedures. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. The general linearized model (GIG) was used to generate analysis of variance (ANOVA) mean and standard error and arrange, statistically significant was set as p-value of .05 (95% confidence limit). Pearson correlation test was used to calculate the correlation between TPH, Heavy metal, and physicochemical parameters in hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon impacted communities. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism (Version 8).

Results: The results obtained for physicochemical parameters were pH 4.3±0.8 mg/l, EC 0.03±0.05 mg/l, DO 5.5±1.6 mg/l, Temp 25.0±0.0 mg/l, Mv 0.32±0.27 mg/l, Nitrite 0.0058±013 mg/l, Nitrate 0.1530±158 mg/l. These results were all below the recommended standard for Nigeria standard of drinking water quality (NSDWQ) and World Health Organization (WHO). The bacteriological analyses were carried out using multiple tubes technique (Most Probable Number), total coliform count, (TC), total heterotrophic count (THBC) and total fungal count (TFC). The results obtained were 0.941±2.397 cfu/ml, 89.3±176.6 cfu/ml, 297.8±144.4 cfu/ml, and 0.32±0.84 cfu/ml respectively. The p-values for TFC (<0.0002) were statistically significant. Heavy metal profiling was: Cr 0.194±0.320 mg/l, Cd 0.469±0.569 mg/l, Cu 0.211±0.348 mg/l, Pb 0.0336±0.20 mg/l, Fe 0.705±1.244 mg/l, Zn 0.258±0.249 mg/l, respectively. Generally, the concentration of heavy metal   increased more than the standard recommended by NSDWQ and WHO except for Zn 0.255±0.249 mg/l, and Cu 0.56±0.50 mg/l, that is slightly lower than the acceptable limit recommended by WHO and NSWWQ. The sequences of heavy metal concentration were in Cd > Cr> Pb>Fe> Cu.>Zn. The statistical significance values for Pb p=.003 and for Zn p=.009 were statistically significant. The concentration of TPH were (349.9 ppm/ml) higher than the recommended values for NSDWQ and WHO.

Conclusion: The findings in this research reviewed a worrisome level of TPH and Pb, and which could have devastating impact on bacterial biodiversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of HBV and its Associated Risks Factors among Patients Accessing Care at a Secondary Health Facility in Ekiti State, Southwest, Nigeria

G. O. Daramola, B. E. Olofu, H. A. Edogun, A. O. Ojerinde, O. D. Ajayi, A. Fatoki, A. Egebbi, O. O. Jegede, O. O. Ogunfolakan

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 98-104
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130404

Viral hepatitis is a serious disease of the liver that can have grim prognosis in the absence of early and appropriate medical intervention. Globally, an estimated two billion people are reported to have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and out of this, more than 350 million are said to have chronic(long term) liver infection. The likelihood that Hepatitis B Virus infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected. Young children who become infected with HBV are most likely to develop chronic infection. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV related liver cancer or cirrhosis. According to WHO ranking of hepatitis prevalence, ≤ 1.9%, 2-7.9% and ≥ 8% are low, moderate and high prevalence respectively. Hepatitis is endemic in Ekiti State, there is therefore the need to know its prevalence in the major cities of Ekiti State. Since Ikere-Ekiti is the second major city of Ekiti State, therefore this study set out to know the prevalence of HBV-caused hepatitis in Ikere-Ekiti and its associated factors,. One hundred participants were enrolled- at the State specialist Hospital, Ikere-Ekiti- into the study after obtaining their informed consent. Consecutive sampling was used. Thirty-three (33%) of the subjects were males while 67 (67%) were females. Thirty-seven (37%) , 30 (30%) and 33 (33%) respectively fell were in the ≤26 years, 27-36 and ≥37 age-brackets. Fifty-two (52 %) were singles while 48 (48%) were married. Ninety-three (93%) were Christians while 7 (%) were Muslims. Structured self-administered questionnaires were served on the subjects. Five millilitres of blood were collected from each subject using venepuncture method. The samples were screened for the presence or otherwise of antibodies to HBsAg using a rapid test kit that worked on the principle of immunochromatography. An overall prevalence of 8% was discovered. Five (5%) of the positive subjects were males while 3 (%) were females (p=0.064). Half (50%) of the positive subjects were within the ≤26 years age-bracket, the 27-36 age-bracket had the least number of positive subjects (p=0.512).  Two out of the positive subjects had a history of blood transfusion (p=0.748), one had history of surgery (p=0.580). The imports and implications of these are here discussed. Since viral hepatitis is vaccine-preventable and herd immunity can only be achieved when the vast majority of a society acquires immunity against a particular infectious disease, the government is advised to strive to vaccinate at least 70% of the populace against viral hepatitis- a disease which is endemic, not only in Ekiti State, but in many parts of Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Using Biological Treatment on Microbial Growth during the Malting of Sorghum

Oluwatosin Charles Ayodeji, Afolabi Folake Titilayo, Abdulkadir Musliu, Fasiku Oluwafemi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 105-114
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130405

Malting is an important industrial product with a huge market outlet. Sorghum grain carries a numerous and variable, microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. Sorghum malt is heavily reliant on chemical control of moulds and coliforms. This research aimed at investigating ways of improving malt quality and safety, using starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, during the steeping stage of malting. All the steep treatments contained a sizeable population of moulds, greater than 4logcfu/mL, at 0hrs of steeping. A 3Log decrease was recorded in the steep treatment containing only single culture of Lactobacillus plantarum All the steeping treatments achieved varying levels of anti-nutrient reduction. The Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 steep reduced the phytate level by as much as 47% when compared to the phytate level in sorghum grain. The combined cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeCYT1 reduced the phytate content by as much as 40% when compared to the sorghum grain without treatment. When compared to the control steep, the Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 steep improved the anti-nutrient degradation by 31%. The combined cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYT1 reduced the phytate content by as much as 23% when compared with the control steep. The polyphenol content was reduced by about 46% in the Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 steep and 29% in the combined cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYT1 steep when compared to the polyphenol content in the whole sorghum grain. Only the Lactobacillus plantarum CLB8 steep had better polyphenol reduction than the control with a 9.6% reduction more than the control. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria can be apply as a biological control organism in malting of grains. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis, Reactions and Antibacterial Properties of 2-hydrazinyl-3-methyl-6-nitroquinoxaline Derivatives

F. O. Taiwo, C.A. Obafemi, D.A. Akinpelu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 115-127
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130408

Aims: This aims of this study was to synthesis new quinoxaline-based heterocycles and study its antibacterial properties.

Objective: This study was designed to synthesis some 3-methyl-6-nitroquinoxaline-2-one with hydrazine moiety, characterize the synthesized compounds, and study their antibacterial properties on some bacterial strains.

Materials and Methods: Six 3-methylquinoxaline-2-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized by reacting 2-hydrazinyl-3-methyl-6-nitroquinoxaline with various substituted acetophenones. The hydrazones were screened for their potential antibacterial properties.

Results: All the test compounds were found to possessed promising antibacterial properties against a panel of bacterial strains screened for this study. The MIC values exhibited by these compounds ranged between 0.0313 and 0.250 mg/mL. The lowest MBC of the compounds against the test organism was 0.0625 mg/mL while the highest MBC was 0.250 mg/mL.

Discussion and Conclusion: The study concluded that all the compounds exhibited appreciable bactericidal effects against all the bacterial strains, which is an indication that such synthetic compounds possessed broad spectrum activities and such compounds could be useful in formulation of antibacterial compounds which could be used to mitigates infections caused by pathogens that are now developing resistance against the available antibiotics.