Open Access Minireview Article

Enviromental Risk Factors Associated with Primary Liver Cancer in Western Kenya: A Mini-review

Evaline Chemutai, David M. Onyango, Cyrus Ayieko, Roselida A. Owour

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 98-111
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230418

Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) is a global health burden, which is poorly addressed in developing countries. It is ranked the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with high incidence rates reported in Asia and Africa. Currently, in Kenya, there is an upward trend of PLC cases reported with no confirmed causes. Furthermore, there is lack of sufficient knowledge on the prognosis mechanisms of PLC, despite some of its known risk factors being established. These additional factors, ranging from lifestyle choices to pre-existing environmental concomitants, could actually play role on the etiology of the disease yet remain unexplored. Due to this, there was a need on evaluating the impacts of exposure to environmental risk factors such as pesticides, food contaminated with aflatoxin, or harmful cyanobacteria algae blooms in regions where PLC is endemic. As a result, this mini-review, aimed at analyzing relevant epidemiological data on primary liver cancer underpinning the mechanism of action of environmental toxin as an emergent risk factor in Western Kenya. This was achieved through meta-synthesis analysis of the previous research findings, with the purpose of integrating their results to inform the present intrinsic case study. Among the many epidemiological studies associating PLC and environmental toxin as an emergent risk factor reviewed in the current study, environmental exposure to microcystin toxin was inferred to constitute a public health hazard due to the continued presence in drinking water sources. Majority of the epidemiological data are in support of the potential association between environmental microcystin toxins and Primary Liver cancer in developing countries. These findings can be used to edify the health and medical professionals at all levels of prevention, including the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease patients, also these findings can act as baseline data that is required for better and informed Lake management water quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening, Characterization and Identification of Sophorolipid-Producing Yeast Isolated from Palm Oil Effluent Polluted Soil

K. F. Williams, O. K. Agwa, G. O. Abu, O. Akaranta

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230409

Aim: This study investigated the screening, characterization and identification of sophorolipid-producing yeast isolated from palm oil effluent polluted soil.

Place and Duration: Two soil samples impacted with palm oil mill effluent were obtained from Elibrada and Rumuche in Emohua Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria, between March 2020 and September 2021.

Methodology: The soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical, geotechnical and microbiological qualities. The yeast isolates were identified using biochemical and 16S ITS molecular approaches. The isolates were screened for hydrocarbon degradation and sophorolipid production. The sophorolipid production was evaluated using emulsification index (E24), haemolytic activity, oil spread activity, drop collapse and blue agar plate assay (Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide CTAB Method).

Results: The pH of the Palm oil mill effluent -impacted soil ranged between pH 6.18 to 6.34 the electrical conductivity value for Elibrada and Rumuche were 20.84 µS/cm and 80.19 µS/cm respectively while that of the unpolluted soil was 220.13 µS/cm. Permeability of the soil from Elibrada was 2.7 cm/s, Rumuche had 1.3 cm/s while the unpolluted soil had 5.6 cm/s. Total organic carbon for soil samples from Rumuche was 4.92%, Elibrada had 6.13% while the unpolluted soil had 8.74%. Oil and grease component for the Rumuche soil was 10500 mg/kg, Elibrada had 7200 mg/kg and the unpolluted soil had 28.0 mg/kg. Total fungal count for Rumuche soil samples was 3.8 × 104 CFU/g while Elibrada had 3.2 × 104 CFU/g. Eighty percent (80%) of the isolates were Candida spp. while 20% were Saccharomyces sp. There were four bands separated which were denoted as ITS 600bp and a Ladder L which was 500bp. The phylogenetic construct showed that the Y8 was 70.2% similar to Candida parapsilosis. The isolate Y3 was 95.8% similar to Candida haemulonis. Isolate Y9 had 100% similarity with Pichia kudriavzevii while Y13 had a 97.4% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae the GENBANK accession numbers were Candida haemulonis MW182014, Candida parapsilosis MW182015, Pichia kudriavzevii MW182016 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MW182017.

Conclusion: There is an increasing concern to develop a process for microbial isolation and characterization for effective biotechnological advancement using impacted environmental media as a bioresource.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Dengue Virus IGM Seroprevalence, Malaria Parasitaemia and Some Haematological Parameters of HIV Infected Individuals in Awka, Nigeria

Okoye, Ebele Linda, Egbufoama, Violet Chimere, O. Chukwuma George

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 17-29
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230410

Dengue fever is regarded as an important neglected Arboviral disease worldwide. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of dengue IgM seroprevalence, malaria parasitaemia and some haematological parameters of HIV infected individuals attending Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu Teaching Hospital Amaku, Awka, Nigeria. A cross sectional study consisting of 188 participants was performed. The demographic data and possible risks factors of the subjects were obtained using well-structured questionnaire. Dengue virus IgM was analysed using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, Malaria parasitaemia was determined using microscopy technique while some haematological parameters were evaluated using heamatology auto analyser (PE-6800 fully auto heamatology analyser procan). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for social (spss) version 25. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of Dengue virus was 20.2% while that of Malaria was 37.2%. The co-infection of Dengue virus IgM antibodies and Malaria parasitemia was 8.51%. Plasmodium falciparium was seen as the only specie of malaria parasite present in the study. The results of some haematogical parameters of the Dengue virus seropositive participants as compared with the Dengue virus seronegative participants were statistically significant with neutrophils (p = 0.035), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC = p<0.013), eosinophils (EOS = p<0.001) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV = p<0.001). This study suggests that Dengue maybe the emerging cause of fever of unknown origin among populations. This calls for urgent attention, adoption of immediate control measures and public health preventive actions against the disease so as to curb or mitigate the emergence as well as reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from dengue burden especially in the immunocompromised individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Salmonella with E. coli and Proteus spp. in Biofilm Formation

S. U. Pathiranage, D. N. N. Madushanka, K. V. D. M. Hasintha, H. C. Nadishani, G. C. P. Fernando, T. S. P. Jayaweera, H. A. D. Ruwandeepika

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230411

Aims: Investigate the interaction of Salmonella spp. with E. coli and Proteus spp. in biofilm formation as mono and dual-species at different time durations

Experimental Design: Salmonella, Proteus, and E. coli were isolated from Broiler chicken meat, and the biofilm-forming ability of these organisms were studied.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, from 2019 December to 2020 May.

Methodology: This study investigated the biofilm-forming ability of Salmonella as a mono species and its interaction with E. coli and Proteus in the process of biofilm formation. Microorganisms used for this study were isolated from broiler chicken meat. Biofilm was quantified using a microtitre plate assay. The interaction effects were tested at the temperature of 280C in different time durations (up to 120 hours).

Results: Salmonella 1 and Proteus monocultures showed significantly higher biofilm-forming ability than Salmonella 3 isolate at all tested time points. At 120 hr, additionally to the salmonella 1 and Proteus isolates E. coli also formed significantly higher biofilms than Salmonella 3. However, Salmonella 3 was the lowest biofilm former as mono biofilm at all tested time durations. Salmonella 1 interaction with Salmonella 3 isolates formed less biofilms than Salmonella 1 mono biofilm at 48hr and 72hr correspondingly. Salmonella 1 and its interactions with Salmonella 3, Proteus, E. coli showed similar biofilm-forming abilities without significant differences at all other tested time points. Specifically, Salmonella 3 interaction with Salmonella 1 as dual biofilm showed higher biofilm-forming ability than Salmonella 3 mono biofilm at all tested time points. Tested isolates and their interaction achieved the highest biofilm formation at numerous time points. In fact, at 48hr, Salmonella 3 isolates and its interaction of Proteus, E. coli, and Salmonella 1 interaction with Proteus attained their highest biofilm formation abilities. The highest biofilm formation was achieved by Salmonella 1 isolate as mono biofilm and Salmonella 1 interaction with E. coli as dual biofilm at 72hr. Biofilm-forming trend of respective isolates and interactions showed numerous patterns at tested time durations.

Specifically, E. coli rapidly enhanced its biofilm-forming ability as monoculture from 24 hr to 120 hr. Proteus, Salmonella 3 as monocultures, Salmonella 3 interaction with Proteus and E. coli as dual cultures showed progressive biofilm development from 24 hr to 48 hr. Salmonella 1 monoculture and its interaction with Salmonella 3, E. coli as dual biofilm improved their biofilm-forming ability from 24 hr to 72 hr. Similar to Salmonella 3 interaction with Proteus, Salmonella 1 interaction with Proteus also increased its biofilm-forming ability from 24 hr to 48 hr.

Conclusions: This study concluded that there is a variation among isolates and their combinations in forming the biofilms, where there is an enhancement of biofilm in dual-species over the mono-species in some interaction, and there is a reduction in biofilm formation by dual-species with some combinations. Further, this concluded that Salmonella is interacting with other commonly found bacteria such as Proteus and E. coli in biofilm formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Properties of Aneurinibacillus migulanus Isolated from Maize Roots (Zea mays)

Lynda Kelvin Asogwa, Frank C. Ogbo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 46-59
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230412

Aims: To isolate Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus strain from maize roots, to evaluate its biocontrol potentials and to characterize the isolate using16S rRNA sequencing.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, between February 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: The isolation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from maize roots was done using Pikovskaya (PVK) agar. Quantitative determination of phosphate was carried out using PVK broth. Evaluations of other plant growth promoting properties were carried out such as IAA, etc. Fusarium and Enterobacter plant pathogens were isolated from diseased maize plants. The in vitro antagonism effects of the PGPR isolates against the pathogens were analyzed using the dual culture plate technique. The pot experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. Plant characteristics such as plant height, shoot  and root weight, chlorophyll content, as well as disease assessment were recorded accordingly. The organisms were identified using phenotypic and molecular methods.

Results: Seven PGPR bacteria were isolated from maize (Zea mays) roots using PVK agar. Aneurinibacillus migulanus gave the highest solubilization index of 4.21 while isolate IS48 gave the lowest solubilization index of 1.47. A. migulanus produced IAA, ammonia and cellulase enzyme but no hydrogen cyanide. The organism showed antagonism activity against the two tested phytopathogens. In the pot experiment, A. migulanus treated plants showed a statistically insignificant difference in maize plant height at P=0.05 but gave significant increases in shoot and root wet weights. The organism offered 83.33% and 71.43% protection against Enterobacter and Fusarium pathogens respectively in the pot experiment.

Conclusion: A. migulanus solubilized phosphate in addition to other plant growth promoting  properties. It showed biocontrol potentials both in vitro and in vivo and thus can be used as substitute for synthetic agrochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Culture-Dependent and Metagenomic Profiling of Eukaryal Diversity in Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil from B-Dere, Gokana, Rivers State, Nigeria

D. N. Ogbonna, I. R. Udotong, N. Basi, R. R. Nrior

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230414

B-Dere is one of the communities in Ogoniland and a major oil producing area in Rivers State where oil exploration and production activities commenced 50 years ago and is now characterized by oil fields and installations that have remained dormant for several decades. Past spills, lack of maintenance, oil trapping and damage to oil infrastructures have been common sight in this region and the environment has been without remediation over the years. B-Dere community has suffered surface water pollution throughout its creeks with massive hydrocarbons for years without remediation. The aim of this study was to determine the Culture- dependent and Metagenomic studies of fungal diversity in petroleum polluted soils in B-Dere community in Gokana LGA of Rivers State, Nigeria. This is to profile fungal communities through next-generation techniques by shotgun sequencing of total DNA isolates directly from the oil polluted environment. Soil samples were collected aseptically with hand auger at a depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm and made up to a composite sample and transported to the laboratory for analysis using standard microbiological methods for culture- dependent analysis while the Metagenomic studies was carried out at the Microbial Insights, Incorporated; United State of America. In this study next-generation sequencing techniques by shotgun sequencing of total DNA methods were used for identification of fungal isolates from the crude oil polluted soils in B-Dere. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from crude oil polluted soil samples was performed using ZymoBiomics DNA extraction kits (Zymo Research, Inc; USA). DNA sequencing was performed by the next generation sequencing technique to determine the nucleotide sequence of all eukaryal community structure present in the polluted soil sample using ITS region. Results of the culture-dependent technique showed that only two fungal genera namely Penicillium sp and Aspergillus sp were isolated and identified while the soil was mainly dominated by the genera Penicillium (73.33%), followed by the Rhodotorula (6.54%), Dactylellina(5.09%), Kalmanozyma(2.56%), Fereydounia(1.89%), Xerochrysium(1.36%), Arthrobotrys (1.14%) and Diutina (0.77%) by the metagenomic analysis. However the three major groups were classified as Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota with Ascomycota having the highest taxonomic reads of 86.76%. However, a total of 60 eukaryal species were identified, in the metagenomic study. In conclusion, these fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in soil ecosystems because of their high activity in aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation and cell surface hydrophobicity. The next-generation techniques by shotgun sequencing assays appear to be suitable alternatives for rapid identification of the above mentioned fungal isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and ESBL Prevalence of Bacteria Isolated from Street Vended Snacks

Chidiebere Anab-Atulomah, Ngozi C. Oji, Vivian N. Kanu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 74-80
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230415

Aims: The objective of the study was to ascertain the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and ESBL prevalence of bacteria isolated from snacks.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology (Laboratory Unit) Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike.

Methodology: The snacks were mashed aseptically, serially diluted and inoculated onto nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates and ESBL detection was done using disk diffusion method. ESBL production was confirmed using Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) method following CLSI recommendations.

Results: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the bacteria isolated with Escherichia coli as the most prevalent isolate with 42% occurrence in the samples screened. There was significant difference in the sensitivity of the bacteria isolates to the different antibiotics used at P=0.05. Salmonella Typhi isolates exhibited highest resistance to an antibiotic with 86% resistance to ciprofloxacin while Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates exhibited the lowest resistance to an antibiotic with 10% resistance to cefotaxime. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, 36% of suspected ESBL producing E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers indicating the highest occurrence.

Conclusion: The study confirmed the presence of bacteria in street vended snacks which exhibited high resistance to antibiotics that could be attributed to the presence of ESBL producers among the isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Anti-Pseudomonal Activities of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Pod Husk using Time-Kill-Test and Agar-Well Diffusion Techniques

I. A. Azeez, A.M. Deji- Agboola, S. L. Owolabi, A. O. Boyejo, A. O. Issah, O. A. Buhari, M. F. Ikeola

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230416

Aim: To determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of cocoa pod husk against P. aeruginosa.

Study Design: An experimental research

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria, between June 2015 and Sept. 2016.

Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven (77) isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from three (3) teaching hospitals were involved in this study. Cocoa pod husk was processed into crude extract and its effectiveness against the isolates of P. aeruginosa were examined using agar well diffusion, time-kill test techniques and Anova.

Results: The percentage susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Cocoa pod husk at 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL inhibited all the P. aeruginosa but only 14.29% were sensitive at a lower concentration of 31.25 mg/mL. Moreover, the comparison between the broth micro and macro dilution method of determining the MIC of cocoa pod husk against P. aeruginosa highlighted a significant decrease in the mean MIC value of the broth micro dilution method when compared with the broth macro dilution technique (T=13.519, P<0.05). The time kill test emphasized that P. aeruginosa was killed at a lower concentration of 62.5mg/ml at 150mins of introduction in to the Cocoa pod husk suspension.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the Cocoa pod husk possesses antibacterial properties. An increase in the concentration of cocoa pod husk increased its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the broth micro dilution technique is sensitive for determining the anti-pseudomonal activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminths among Farmers Living Along the Metropolitan Section of River Kaduna, Nigeria

Salamatu Abdulmalik Mohammed, Philip Anthony Vantsawa, A. A. Haroon, Karderam Bukar Dikwa, Adam Musa Bature, B. Sani Dari

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 88-97
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230417

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one of the world’s most important causes of physical and intellectual growth retardation. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among farmers living along the metropolitan section of river Kaduna, Nigeria. Two billion people are infected globally and four billion at risk of infection to STH. Nigeria ranking first globally, accounts for about 156 million cases of STH. A total of 210 stool samples were randomly collected from farmers of seven (7) different farms located along the riverbank. The stool samples collected were examined for STHs using direct wet mount and formal ether sedimentation techniques. Questionnaires were administered to the farmers to assess their hygiene, sanitation, and health maintenance. The prevalence of STH based on the farmers' age and gender was also determined. Out of the total stool samples collected, 81(38.6%) were infected with at least one out of the four STH eggs. The eggs of hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were the only helminths eggs detected. Hookworm was found to have a prevalence of 54.3% while A. lumbricoides have a prevalence of 45.7%. Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris tichuira both were found to have 0% prevalence. The risk factors such as personal hygiene, sanitation and health maintenance were found to have a significant influence on the prevalence (38.6%) (P<0.05) of STH among the farmers. The age prevalence shows that group 10 – 25 have the highest prevalence of 81.3% while age 36 – 45 shows the lowest prevalence of 2.4%. The gender prevalence shows that male farmers have the highest prevalence of 41.4% out of the total infected farmers (81). The findings could be as a result of farmers’ hygiene, sanitation and health maintenance on their various farms and their use of contaminated farm tools which acts as a medium for the transmission of the parasite eggs, while the younger age group work more hours than the older age group and the male farmer spends more time in the farm than the female.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Antibiotics, Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates

Snježana Hodžić, Amela Hercegovac, Nijaz Tihić, Darja Husejnagić, Aldijana Avdić, Merima Ibišević, Melisa Kadrić

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230419

Aims: The aims of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates to antibiotics and essential oils - Origanum compactum, Origanum majorana and Thymus serpyllum.

Study Design: Study included 30 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae obtained from clinical material provided from the University Clinical Center Tuzla.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tuzla, BiH, between September 2019 to September 2020.

Methodology: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The following commercially available antibiotic discs were used: amoxicillin (30µg), cefalexin (30 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), amikacin (30 µg), imipenem (10 µg), piperacillin (75µg), ampicilin (10 µg), meropenem (10 µg), ciprofloksacin (10 µg), ceftazidim (30 µg), cefotaksim (30 µg), ceftriaxone (30 µg), cefepime (30 µg) and aztreonam (30 µg). The antibacterial effect of the essential oils was tested for ESBL K. pneumoniae isolates using the diffusion method according to Clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: O. compactum and O. majorana essential oils showed the same antimicrobial activity with 80.0% effect on ESBL K. pneumoniae isolates, Thymus serpyllum EO showed antimicrobial activity of 60.0%. The lowest MIC value had the O. compactum essential oil (MIC 6 mg/ml-10.5 mg/ml), followed by the T. serpyllum (MIC 17.2 mg/ml-43 mg/ml), while the O. majorana essential oil showed MIC values in range from 11 mg/ml to 39 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed the exceptional sensitivity of ESBL K. pneumoniae clinical isolates to the essential oils from Origanum and Thymus genera, which highly suggests their potential application in the struggle against these pathogens in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Momordica charantia Schaefer Leaf Extract Antibacterial Efficacy, Phytochemical Screening, and Toxicological Studies

Olafimihan Christianah Abiola, Awe Adewole Sunday

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 120-127
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230420

Momordica charantia, also known as Bitter melon or Bitter gourd, is a Cucurbitaceae plant that is widely grown in tropical and subtropical areas. It has a wide range of applications, including antibacterial, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, and antioxidant. Momordica charantia's antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis using standard techniques. Antibacterial activity was tested using agar-well diffusion techniques. The results showed that ethanol and n-hexane extracts inhibited the growth of all of the bacteria tested at a dosage of 100 mg/ml, although with different susceptibility. The diameter of zones of inhibition obtained ranged from 10mm -15.1mm and 8.2mm - 14 mm for ethanol and n-hexane extracts respectively. For both ethanol and n hexane extracts, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 30 to 40 mg/ml. For both ethanol and n-hexane extracts, the minimum bacteriocidal concentrations varied from 30 to 40 mg/ml. Tannin, saponin, alkaloids, and polyphenol were found in the phytochemical screening results. The histology of the liver and large intestine of the seemingly healthy albino rats fed the leaf extract was normal. Momordica charantia may be utilised to treat infections and disorders caused by these bacteria, according to the findings of this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Potential of Some Nigerian Indigenous Plants: A Remedy for Candidiasis

Mercy I. Aboh, Japhet G. Yakubu, Jude U. Eze, Fahd Khalid-Salako, Peters O. Oladosu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 128-134
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230421

Background: Invasive candidiasis has been recognized as a major cause of mortality and morbidity in hospital settings across the globe. Aside from C. albicans, other Candida species (C. glabarata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis) associated with invasive candidiasis have been reported as a public health challenge.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activities of extracts of some indigenous plants using the agar disc diffusion method.

Methods: Fresh samples of the plant parts were collected, identified, air dried, pulverized and extracted using standard methods. The extracts were screened against clinical isolates of  C. albicans, C. glabarata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis using agar disc diffusion method.

Results: All plant extracts exhibited varying inhibition zones ranging from 8.0 - 24.0 mm against the tested isolates. Fractions of Acalypha wilkesiana Macrophylla (AWRF5) showed the lowest activities against all the test isolates with zones of inhibition ranging from 10.0-13.0 mm while AWRF6 fraction of the same plant demonstrated highest antifungal activities against all the test isolates with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.0-24 mm followed by fractions of Acalypha wilkesiana Hoffmanii (AWGF6), which demonstrated high (14.0 - 20.0 mm) antifungal activities.

Conclusion: The Plants understudied possessed antifungal potentials and can serve as lead in the development of phytomedicines to combat candidiasis decrease medical as well as financial burden, hence improving the management of cirrhotic patients. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Genotypes and Genetic Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Samples

D. O. Ajayi, A. A. Onasanya, G. O. Daramola

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 135-149
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230422

Infection with Staphylococcus aureus has been considered a major problem in hospitals. The clinical importance of S. aureus isattributed to notable virulence factors and genetic diversity. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the distribution of S, aureus virulence gene anddifferent genotypesin some isolates obtained from clinical samples from Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti. A total of 25 isolates were screened for the presence of 16SrRNA,GeIE and asaIvirulence genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).Virulence genes 16SrRNA, gelE, asaI) formed clusters in S. aureus isolates used in this study. 16SrRNA was absence in 5 of the isolates and only present in 21 of the isolates. GeIE virulence gene was absence in 2 of the isolates and present in 23 of the isolates. AsaI virulence gene was absence in 7 of the isolates and present in 18 of the isolates. Virulence diversity was observed among isolates. Which could be used as a guide to the pathogenicity of individual isolates and hence control spread of infection.The genetic typing was carried out by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) using OPBO8, OPHO4, OPH03, OPBO5, and OPT12 Primers. Also there exist different genotypes among the S. aureus isolates used in this study revealing high level of genetic diversity occurrence among S. aureus isolates. The DNA fingerprint revealed high genetic diversity among isolates irrespective of their sources. Further work could be done considering the antibiotic resistant gene and also sequencing of virulence gene clusters peculiar to S. aureus pathogens.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination Report: The Nigeria Perspective

Mike-Ogburia, Moore Ikechi, Jonathan, Nyebuchi, Konne, Felix Eedee, Jacob, Ransom Baribefii

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 60-63
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230413

COVID-19 vaccine like other vaccines is developed to produce acquired immunity against the virus which causes coronavirus disease. The spread of the virus led to quick study by various science laboratories all over the world on the preventive role and the mortality rate reduction potential of covid vaccines. Celebration has been witnessed in different part of the world for the role the vaccines played against various cases arising from coronavirus infection. This review focused on the adverse event of coronavirus vaccines with perspective to the Nigerian populace. The type of vaccines approved for use by the WHO include; viral vector vaccines which has the Oxford-Astrazenca in its class, RNA vaccines, whole virus vaccines (having the Sinopharm, and Sinovac in it class), and protein subunit vaccines (with Novavax COVID-19 vaccines and (ESI, 2021), EpiVacCorona in it class). In Nigeria, about 8,439 mild adverse reactions have been reported by the National Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), following the administration of the first doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. The report showed that out of over a million persons who received the vaccine, 8,439 persons showed mild adverse effects, while 52 persons suffered moderate to severe adverse events on receiving the jab. Generally, the vaccine has proven to be effective in combating and limiting infection and spread of covid-19 among the citizenry.