Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence Rate of Helicobacter pylori amongst Patients Presenting with Presumptive Gastritis in Rivers State, Nigeria Using Antigen Detection Method

V. N. Agi, O. A. Ollor, C. A. Azike, D. B. Naziga

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730468

Background: Gastritis is an inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach which has been a global burden in the past decades. It can be caused by irritation, excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs. It may also be caused by Helicobacter pylori- a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach.

Methodology: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study aimed at determining the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori amongst patients presenting with presumptive gastritis was carried out at gastroenterology clinic of Rivers State University Teaching Hospital Port Harcourt. Two hundred and forty two (242) male and female participants were recruited randomly for the study, their stool samples were analyzed using On Site H. pylori antigen® (USA) and fecal occult blood (ROSTEC™) Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits, while characteristics and symptoms for gastritis were assessed with pretest questionnaires. Data generated from this study were statistically analyzed using MS Excel 2007 and represented in charts and tables.

Results: The prevalence rate of H. Pylori was found to be 55% in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) with a higher prevalence among females than males and an increase in prevalence but decline above 49 years.

Conclusion: H. pylori testing should be regarded as an important aspect in clinical practice to help in treatment and better eradication of the infection in patients; this will lead to a significant decrease in gastritis in patients of different age group whether with symptoms or asymptomatic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infections among Pregnant Women at Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia, Nasarawa State Nigeria

I. G. Innocent, M. I. Kuleve, G. C. Ajugwo, I. I. Anekwe, V. K. Fadayomi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730470

Hepatitis infections are global public health concern more especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections which can easily be transmitted from mothers to newborn babies through contact with body secretions. This research was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C infections among pregnant women in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia, Nasarawa State. Cross sectional study design was carried out from January 2017 to December 2017 among 374 pregnant women. Blood sample was collected from each pregnant woman and screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit produced by Nantong Diagnos Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China. Overall prevalence infections of viral hepatitis B and C among the participant was 35(9.4%) and 18(4.8%) respectively. Hepatitis B prevalence was higher than Hepatitis C (P>0.05). Some of the pregnant women were found to be multi-gravida patients ranged from 20-29 years of age with prevalence of 9.6% HBV and 5.1% HCV (P> 0.05). The findings of this research suggest need to initiate public awareness to reduce disease load and transmission; immunization to all pregnant women and their newborn babies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Biodegradation Potential of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from the Roots and Leaves of Mangrove Plants (Avicennia germinans) (Black Mangrove), Acrostichum aureum (Golden Leather Fern) and Rhizophora mangle (Red Mangrove)

Somiari, Adaobi Assumpta Abiye, Douglas, Salome Ibietela, Nrior, Renner Renner

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730471

Aim: The aim of this study is to screen and determine the biodegradation potential of the endophytic bacteria isolated from roots and leaves of mangrove plants.

Methodology: In this work were isolated, identified and screened endophytic bacteria from roots of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Acrostichum aureum; the three major species of mangrove plants found in the Niger Delta. The roots were transported in a sterile bag to the Microbiology Laboratory and treated using standard Microbiological techniques. The organisms isolated include: Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Klebsiella sp, Azotobacter sp, Nitrobacter sp. and Nitrosomonas sp. These organisms were screened for their ability to degrade crude oil by analyzing them using an ultra-violet spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600nm and through a colorimetric test that involves the use of 2,6, Dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCPIP) as the metabolic activity indicator for a 14 days period.

Results: According to the colorimetric test, isolates that were positive hydrocarbon degraders were observed by a colour change from blue to colourless, which include: Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp and Nitrobacter sp, while those that changed from blue to pink(an indication of a negative reaction) were: Nitrosomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Azotobacter sp and Klebsiella sp. Amount degraded and percentage biodegradation ranged from Micrococcus sp 278.6 (6.2%) ˂ Azotobacter sp. 1242.8 (17.8%) ˂ Nitrosomonas sp 1392.9 (19.9%) ˂ Staphylococcus sp1543.0 (22.1%) ˂ Bacillus sp 17927.8 (25.6%) ˂ Nitrobacter sp 1935.7 (28%) ˂ Klebsiella sp 3392.9 (48.5%) ˂ Bacillus sp 3671.4 (52.5%) ˂ Pseudomonas sp 4942.8 (70%).

Conclusion: Pseudomonas and Bacillus species demonstrated the highest potential to degrade crude oil and can therefore be used in bioremediation of water ecosystem impacted by crude oil. Hence, the scientific contribution of this research is related to identifying several culturable groups of bacteria that might be directed to these further biotechnological approaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Suscepibility Studies on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolated from Vegetables Sold at Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

A. Nuhu, U. F. Obiora

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730473

Aim: The study was aimed at antibiotic susceptibility studies on Escherichia coli O157: H7 isolated from vegetables sold at Sokoto Central Market, Northwestern, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study is a cross-sectional study involving sampling of vegetables sold at Central Market, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Shehu Shagari Central Market Sokoto were sample are collected and analyzed at central Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. The research was conducted over a period of six (6) months (January, 2019 – June, 2019).

Methodology: A cross-sectional study involving sampling of vegetables sold at Central Market, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Vegetable samples were processed and inoculated unto sorbiol MacConkey’s agar (SMAC) at a pH of 7.2 for the isolation of Escherichia coli by streaking method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out on Escherichia coli which were isolated from the samples analyzed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Isolates DNA was extracted using MiniPrep kit (Zymo research (ZR) California, USA) and then samples were amplified in separate reactions using the GeneAmp PCR (Polymerised chain reaction) System 9700 thermocycler for Escherichia coli O157: H7 specific gene detection.

Results: The presence of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetable samples was 2 (1.25%) and significantly low. High sensitivity patterns were observed against ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidine and cefuroxine. Resistance was found to be high for amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin.

Conclusion: Although there was significantly low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in vegetable samples, investigation of non-0157 shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is therefore required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Impact of Age, Sex and Location in the Spread of Tuberculosis Infection among Patients, in Bayelsa State Nigeria, using Molecular Technique

Goodluck Silas, Amala, Smart Enoch, Amba, Ollor Ollor, Vivian Nkemkanma Agi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730474

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a disease condition caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Several predisposing factors such as Age, Sex and overcrowding may have affected the prevalence of tuberculosis in various locations including Bayelsa State and other parts of the world.

Aim: The aim of this study is to know if Age, Sex and Location determines tuberculosis rate of infection, using molecular technique to isolate Mycobacterium tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Methodology: We analyzed a total of 102 sputum samples, which were collected from each of the participants. GeneXpert molecular method was used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Rifampicin resistant cases. The data and results obtained are statistically analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.

Result: Out of the 102 sputum samples screened, 91(89.2%) were confirmed to have tuberculosis, Tuberculosis among male and female were 54(52.9%) and 37(36.3%) respectively, while rifampicin resistance among male and female were 3(2.9%) and 5(4.9%) respectively. Tuberculosis infection among male and female were not statistically significant (p = .75). The age intervals are 11-20, 21-31, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-80. 31-40 years had the highest tuberculosis prevalence of 30(29.4). The various locations were Brass, Ekeremor, Kolokuma/Opokuma, Nembe, Ogbia, Southern Ijaw and Sagbama Local Governmemt Areas. People residing in Yenagoa local Government had more positive case of both rifampicin resistant 5(4.9%) and non-rifampicin resistant tuberculosis infection.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis infection is more predominant among male in Bayelsa State than female but rifampicin resistance species are more predominant among females. The age group interval of 40-41 had the highest prevalence of tuberculosis infection while the highest location of tuberculosis infection is Yenagoa.

Open Access Review Article

Fluoroquinolone Resistant Salmonella Species

Caleb Ndako Angulu, Sadiq Umar Maryam, Godiya Peter Mamman, Innocent Apameio Jesse, Agholor Kin, Yakubu Mahmud

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730472

Fluoroquinolones are widely used most effective medication, systemic antibacterial that have long been used against respiratory and Urinary Tract Infections. Fluoroquinolones are effective against both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and negative bacteria, most especially Salmonella species.  Resistance comes as a curse with antibiotics that occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The main problem connected with the therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones is the establishment of more virulent and resistant Salmonella species due to the development of either altered DNA-binding proteins or efflux pump mechanisms for antibiotics. It is currently a serious public health threat that affects people all around the world. When a Salmonella species develops resistance to fluoroquinolones, the fluoroquinolones are no longer effective in treating Salmonella infections. This review provides an overview of Salmonella infection, and discusses the fluoroquinolones, Mechanisms of antibiotics resistance in Salmonella, Pathogenesis of Salmonella species and clinical manifestations.